“transmedia storytelling” from a perspective that integrates semiotics and narratology in Carlos Alberto Scolari: [email protected] Journal Name: Semiotica – Journal of the International Association for Semiotic Studies / Revue de l’Association Internationale de Sémiotique Volume: second-floor balcony is devoted to transmedia storytelling. Transmedia storytelling: new ways of communicating in the digital age by Carlos A. Scolari.

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The project

Frank Miuccio IT Director. International Journal of Communication. Melissa Miriam Aronczyk Rutgers University. Ilhem Allagui Northwestern University-Qatar. Francois Bar University of Southern California. Lance Bennett University of Washington. Yochai Benkler Harvard Law School.

Pablo Javier Boczkowski Northwestern University. Jennings Bryant University of Alabama. Gustavo Cardoso University of Lisbon. Jaeho Cho University of California, Davis. Simon Cottle Cardiff University.

Nick Couldry London School of Economics. Craig University of Colorado at Boulder. Delli Carpini University of Pennsylvania. Marco Deseriis Northeastern Carlis. Susan Douglas University of Michigan.

Stephen Duncombe New York University. William Dutton Michigan State University.

Richard Dyer University of London. Dilip Gaonkar Northwestern University. Ian Glenn University of Cape Town. Sergio Godoy Universidad Catolica de Chile. Trudy Govier University of Lethbridge. Larry Grossberg University of North Carolina.

International Journal of Communication

Manuel Alejandro Guerrero Universidad Iberoamericana. James Hamilton Stanford University. Eszter Hargittai University of Zurich.

John Hartley Curtin University. David Hesmondhalgh Leeds UK. Steve Jones University of Illinois-Chicago. Henry Jenkins University of Southern California. Josh Kun University of Southern California. Justin Lewis Cardiff University. Sonia Livingstone London School of Scolrai. Oren Meyers University of Haifa. Monge University of Southern California. Thomas Nakayama Northeastern University.

Philip Napoli Duke University. Horace Newcomb University of Georgia. Zhongdang Pan University of Wisconsin – Madison. Cinzia Padovani Southern Illinois University. Zizi Papacharissi University of Illinois at Chicago.

Transmedia Literacy

John Durham Peters Yale University. Alejandro Piscitelli University of Buenos Aires. Dana Polan New York University. Adam Powell University of Southern California.

Monroe Price University of Pennsylvania. Janice Radway Northwestern University. Eric Rothenbuhler Webster University. Michael Schudson Columbia University. James Shanahan Indiana University. Aram Sinnreich American University. Jonathan Sterne McGill University. Joseph Straubhaar University of Texas at Austin.

John Thompson Cambridge University. Yariv Tsfati University of Haifa. Joseph Turow University of Pennsylvania. Ingrid Volkmer University of Melbourne. Silvio Waisbord George Washington University. Jay Wang University of Southern California. James Webster Northwestern University. Guobin Yang University of Pennsylvania. Yuezhi Zhao Simon Fraser University. User Username Password Scolsri me. Article Tools Indexing metadata.

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tranwmedia Email this article Login required. Email the author Login required. Abstract Many concepts have been developed to describe the convergence of media, languages, and formats in contemporary media systems. After dealing with the conceptual chaos around transmedia storytelling, the article analyzes how these new multimodal narrative structures create different implicit consumers and construct a narrative world.

The analysis includes a description of the multimedia textual structure created around the Fox television series Finally, the article analyzes transmedia storytelling from the perspective of a semiotics of branding.


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Diagnóstico: mordida abierta anterior provocada por interposición lingual. Basándonos en los datos que nos proporciona la. Trabajando la interposición lingual. Esther Lozano odóntologa del equipo Clínica dental Midentista Valencia es muy consciente que debe haber un trabajo. . Prevalence of malocclusions associated with pernicious. Gua studi karakteristik dan potensi pengembangan guagua karst di download zahedi, studi.

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Malocclusions are considered by the WHO as the third interposicoin by its prevalence and they represent a public health problem. Genetic and environmental risk factors such as abnormal oral habits are of vital importance to consider its frequency, duration and intensity in order to avoid creating specific changes in the occlusion.

To determine the prevalence onterposicion malocclusions and its association with risk factors, such as pernicious oral habits in a 2 to year-old child population who requested dental care in the Venustiano Carranza peripheral clinic of the UNAM.

A cross-sectional study was conducted in children. The epidemiologic information was recollected in one phase that comprised two stages to identify the presence of pernicious oral habits and diagnose the type of malocclusion. The statistical package SPSS 15 was used. The prevalence of pernicious oral habits was The largest number of cases presented at age 4 and in the 6 to 11 years of age during the mixed dentition.

Malocclusions were present in both genders with no significant difference. The habit with the highest prevalence was lingual interposition In regard to malocclusions, the most prevalent was open bite Child population presents greater susceptibility to develop malocclusions during growth so preventive measures should lungual adopted during this stage.

En cuanto a las maloclusiones: The World Health Organization considers malocclusions as a variable public health problem that ranks third in prevalence of oral anomalies associated with different risk factors such as genetic and environmental. Among the environmental risk factors is the presence of pernicious oral habits which may influence the development of a malocclusion depending on their frequency, duration and intensity during growth and development, causing specific changes in the occlusion and in bone and facial tissues.

Malos Hábitos Oralesal by Alejandro Barrenechea on Prezi

Occlusal normal patterns for the first dentition according to the terminal position of the primary second molars are the terminal plane flush and the mesial step relationship, which lead to an Angle inherposicion class I in the permanent dentition. The severe mesial and distal steps are considered malocclusion precursors for the second dentition. I and II and III is of vital importance as guidelines during the diagnosis of any habit- associated malocclusion.

Identification of any of the abovementioned conditions and recognition of risk factors could prevent major anomalies; the problem is that, while it is true that a large number preventive studies has been published, these generally focus in the dental caries problem in preschool and school age children in contrast to those related with the prevention of oral habits.

Risk factors such as thumb sucking for extended periods of time, may cause specific abnormal effects on occlusion and bone development 12 and although breastfeeding interposiciob been considered greatly beneficial, it has also been associated with inteeposicion such as open bite when maintained for too long.

Malocclusion prevalence studies in children have established that oral linfual can affect tooth position and arch shape, interfering with normal growth and orofacial musculature function.

It was also determined that there was an association between thumb sucking habit and malocclusion. Considerable problems could be avoided if pediatricians, general dental practitioners, pediatric dentists and orthodontists when examining year-old children, identified the presence of oral habits in order to prevent and intercept them which would avoid physical and psychological repercussions during puberty and adolescence.

Epidemiologic studies provide a great amount of information about the profile of malocclusions associated with different variables. Effects on the masticatory muscles were observed which caused TMJ noises and palpation sensitivity. In a study designed to identify and prioritize the possible relationship between atypical swallowing, open bite, diction and school performance by sex and age in children from preschool through sixth grade, it was determined that children between 7 and 8 years of age had more language problems and that girls presented atypical swallowing that caused open bites.

The abovementioned information highlights the importance of identifying clinical characteristics of linguzl habits associated with the development of some of the malocclusions that are more frequently present in the child population, in order to prevent, intercept or correct them during growth and development. A cross-sectional study was performed on children of both genders, ages between 2 and 15 years who attended the Venustiano Carranza peripheral clinic of the Dental School of the National Autonomous University of Mexico for dental care and whose parents previously signed a consent form to participate in this study.

The epidemiologic information was obtained with the informed consent of the parents or guardians. The survey contained a section with direct questions for the children in a personal way, and distraight and another section addressed to parents in order to identify the presence of oral habits.

Finally, epidemiologic variables such as mouth breathing, lip competence, incompetence, or biting; onychophagia and presence of calluses caused by thumb sucking were obtained. The child was asked to swallow saliva to assess if the swallowing was atypical or not and if it there was tongue thrust.

deglución lingual | Spanish to English | Medical: Dentistry

Oral habits were also assessed by means of the information provided by the parents. In cases with crossbite a milimetrical rule and a fine-tipped caliper were used to determine the transverse dimension or the maxillary compression. This was measured from the central fossa of the upper right first molar to the fossa of the upper left molar. In the lower arch, it was determined from the distal cusp of the right molar to the left molar as the parameters described by Korkhaus.

For permanent teeth, malocclusion was determined by the position of the upper first molar with respect to the lower first molar as Class I, II div. In the present study children from 2 to 15 years of age participated. The average age was 8 years presenting a minimum age of 2 and a maximum of 15 Figure 1. With regard to the prevalence of pernicious oral habits, it was determined that it was To analyze the frequency by age and gender it was observed that the prevalence of oral habits is higher in males than in females and more frequent at the age of 4 and from 6 to eleven years old, when they are in the mixed dentition.

For females it was also noted that in age groups the largest number of cases were present Table I. Total percentage of children by gender. Prevalence of pernicious oral habits. Prevalence of oral habits by age and gender. The most prevalent pernicious oral habits were tongue thrust with a To a lesser proportion inadequate posture was There were no cases of pacifier use or bruxism in the study sample Figure 3.

Prevalence of pernicious oral habits.

A Lingual thrust, frontal and lateral view B Lip suction C Thumb sucking E Mouth breathing When analyzing the percentage distribution by gender, it was ijterposicion that, for females as well as for males, lingual interposition was the most prevalent linguap more than half of the children presented it; lip suction and onychophagia occupied second and third place respectively Table II.

The most prevalent malocclusion were open bite with a Percentile distribution of the prevalence of oral habits by gender. C Overjet, lteral and occlusal view 7. D Edge to edge bite. In regard to the presence of malocclusions in relation to gender, the largest proportion was open bite with a In primary dentition, the highest prevalence was the mesial terminal plane with In linguao permanent dentition class I molar was more prevalent with Posterior crossbite was observed in the Prevalence of terminal planes.

A Mesial step, B Exaggerated mesial step; 4. C Flush terminal plane; 8. D Linguall step; 2. Angle molar class prevalence.

deglución lingual

A Class I; male B Molar class II; male C Molar class III; A mouth-breathing association with linguxl crossbite and Angle Class II was found and 0. The standard deviation with respect to transverse measures of the maxilla and the mandible was a 6mm discrepancy for 4: Ratio of patients with posterior crossbite. Pernicious oral habits may be predisposing factors for malocclusions which, unfortunately, are present in the child population at an early age, causing substantial alterations in the second dentition and proving to be a real public health problem.

In terms of gender, prevalence was similar for both habits and malocclusions. Bayardo inferposicion Barrios 34 reported that the female sex was predominant in their studies, as well as Alonso, 6 stating that malocclusions were more prevalent in girls. However, Bosnjak 30 found that the boys showed more inyerposicion than girls, and observed trends toward a certain gender. In general, the prevalence of linggual habits according to gender in this study behaved similar for both males and females.

In relation to age, subjects between the ages of 6 and interpoiscion years showed a higher prevalence of pernicious oral habits as well as of malocclusions. Similar results were found in studies conducted in Mexico, Brazil, Nigeria, the United State 35 and Spain, which indicates that oral habits and their implications are more notorious and aggressive during the mixed dentition. Therefore, it has been established that the oral habits with higher prevalence are: In terms of prevalence of malocclusions, the ones with the highest observed prevalence lingal the following: In regard to the relationship of terminal planes primary dentitionthe most prevalent was the mesial step with The study was carried out in a population of Mexican children of Nezahualcoyotl City, a municipality adjacent to the location in which the present study was carried out.

The study performed by Bayardo13 found a These results are in agreement with the data obtained from this study. The most prevalent pernicious habits in the studied population were lingual interposition and thumb suction, which caused interpoosicion open bite.

Mouth breathing was found to have a relation to posterior cross bite. Thus, it is important to know the prevalence of pernicious oral habits associated with certain malocclusions that develop in early ages in order to prevent, intercept or correct during growth. In addition, it should be borne in mind that in the child population there is an increased susceptibility to develop these anomalies so preventive measures should be adopted such as periodic clinic exams, timely diagnosis, early treatment and prevent the development of more severe and costly problems.

It is also important to mention that this type of anomalies should interposicuon treated in a multidisciplinary manner. Inicio Revista Mexicana de Ortodoncia Prevalence of malocclusions associated with pernicious oral habits in a Mexican Prevalence of malocclusions associated with pernicious oral habits in a Mexican sample.

Under a Creative Commons license. Genetic and environmental risk factors such as abnormal oral habits are of vital importance to consider its frequency, duration and intensity in order to avoid creating specific changes in the occlusion. Objective To determine the prevalence of malocclusions and its association with risk factors, such as pernicious oral habits in a 2 to knterposicion child population who requested dental care in the Venustiano Carranza peripheral clinic of the UNAM.

Method A cross-sectional study was conducted in children. The statistical package SPSS 15 was used.


Collide: Book One in the Collide Series [Gail McHugh] on *FREE* shipping on qualifying offers. From the New York Times bestselling indie author. Collide: Book One in the Collide Series – Kindle edition by Gail McHugh. Download it once and read it on your Kindle device, PC, phones or tablets. Use features. Read Collide (Collide #1) online free from your iPhone, iPad, android, Pc, Mobile . Collide is a Romance novel by Gail McHugh.

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Goodreads helps you keep track of books you want to read. Want to Read saving…. Want to Read Currently Reading Read. Refresh and try again. Open Preview See a Problem? Thanks for telling us about the problem. Return to Book Page. Preview — Collide by Gail McHugh.

A missed first encounter Colliding with a second chance On the heels of graduating college and trying to cope with her mother’s death, Emily Cooper moves to New York City for a fresh start. While harboring secrets of his own, Dillon Parker takes care of Emily through her grief. Knowing he can’t live without her by his side, he’s sweet, thoughtful, and everything Emi A missed first encounter Knowing he can’t live without her by his side, he’s sweet, thoughtful, and everything Emily has ever wanted in a man.

Collide (Collide, #1)

Until she meets Gavin Blake-a rich and notorious playboy who is collixe sexy and charming as hell. Emily tries to deny the instant connection she feels, but Mr. Tall, Dark, and Handsome is not inclined to let go so easily.

Recovering from his own painful past, Gavin will stop at nothing to win Emily over.

This unexpected encounter compels Emily to question her decisions, forcing her to make a choice that will destroy friendships, shatter hearts, and forever change her life. Paperbackpages. Published May 20th by Mhcugh Books first published New York StateUnited States. To see what your friends thought of this book, please sign up.

To ask other readers questions about Collideplease sign up. Is this a cliff hanger book? I’m looking for something to read on my vacation next month but don’t want to be left with a cliff hanger.

Brooklyn JoJo Yes, the story is left unresolved See all 7 questions about Collide…. Lists with This Book. Spoilers are cllide, so if that isn’t your thing, feel free to ignore this review entirely. Actually, I take that back. It collid pretty awful. Where to start with this mess? I cannot begin to mchuhh how ridiculously annoying it is when a character laughs with almost everything they say, as if every word out of their mouth is funny enough to warrant a laugh.

Not to mention the fac Spoilers are likely, so if that isn’t your thing, feel free to ignore this review entirely.

Not to mention the fact that, in this case, it was used as a dialogue tag. This means that it should be punctuated differently. A period is needed as a separator between the action and the dialogue, not a comma.

While I had many issues with this book, the biggest annoyance for me was Emily herself. The girl was a martyr to the extreme. Dillon manipulated her at every turn because she allowed it. She was blind because she refused to accept what was right in front of her face. Everyone could see Dillon for who he truly was, everyone but her. She accepted every excuse he threw at her. If only the same applied for Gavin. Dillon was possessive, controlling, and manipulative.

I didn’t understand what Emily saw in him. I didn’t find collidf all that appealing, not even before he started showing his true colors. He had d-bag written all over him. Closing the door behind him, he shed the rest of coollide clothing and tossed them into a pile.

Dillon walked into the bathroom, turned on the shower, and got in. Did you cover yourself up?

Read Collide online free by Gail McHugh | Novelscom

Good Lord, did he expect her to go swimming fully clothed? After downing a shot of tequila, a slight pang of guilt for not giving Dillon the little he had asked from her hit the pit of her stomach. She actually felt guilty for turning him down for sex. I mean, sure, he was sweet and all, but after a while, I just felt sorry for him. To his credit, he did eventually come clean, but, by that point, I was over his cowardice.

He talked a big game, but that was about it—all talk, no action. He more or less tolerated Dillon for reasons unknown. I found the book as a whole to be somewhat boring, and by somewhat I mean completely. It was melodramatic, predictable, and overly long and wordy. The plot relied too heavily on contrived miscommunication and misunderstandings. Basically, it was angst for the sake of angst.

Collide Series

It had potential, but fell short on delivery. At first glance, I thought the couple on the book cover was two women.

View all 31 comments. This review has been hidden because it contains spoilers.

To view it, click here. Okay, what the hell? This book actually made me want to swear. Oh sugar, big problem for me. I have to say, of the three major characters — that is Gavin, Dillon, and Emily — Gavin was the least objectionable. He was a tad too mushy and “in-touch” with his feelings for my taste; otherwise, not horrible.

Dillon, what a d-bag. I do not understand Emily’s relationship with him. We, as readers, are supposed to bu Okay, what the hell? We, as readers, are supposed to buy that he was sweet and charming before New York and then flipped the switch?

The transition was too abrupt for me, especially considering I did not get the mchjgh to meet him before this “transformation. From the beginning, this girl has no backbone. This made it extremely difficult for gaul to relate to her.

And it gets worse from there. Not only was she weak, but she was inconsistent. Collids example, her reaction to Gina.

Earlier in the book, she actually sees Dillon and Monica kissing and takes him back. However, when she sees Gina open the door sans pants, she completely freaks, cuts gal communication with Gavin allowing him no explanationand gets back together with Dillon the manhandling s.

On one hand, I understand her reaction with Gavin was supposed to be more dramatic because she feels deeper for him. On the other, her not even talking to him or confronting him about it? As such, I was unable to understand Gavin’s love for her.

She just didn’t seem worthy. Also, I didn’t like that it never once entered her head to just be alone. She’s incapable of seeing her options. Why doesn’t she see that she does not have to be with either Gavin or Dillon. They are not her only choices! The ending clolide what really threw me over the edge.

She lets Dillon rape her!!! The book ends with her leaving Dillon asleep to cllide back to Gavin. Before leaving Dillon, she whispers a soft goodbye; no venom, no sarcasm, no nothing. Girl, he basically just raped you!

I really coloide like this book.

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Fortunately for iSeries, System i, and Power i administrators, we don’t IPL our systems as much as others may reboot their Windows boxes, and. Hi, We have a AS/ which was performing very badly for last month or so. In order to perform several functionalities we have Island. I have a and I want to do a manual IPL, because nobody can access it. I also do not have a console. Can you please give me step by step instructions.

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For more information on scanning and the system value settings, see the topic Scanning support. Follow the instructions on the displays.

The value Y Yes automatically configures local devices. N No indicates no automatic configuration.

To install additional licensed programs, continue with the tasks in Using the Work with Licensed Programs menu to install IBM licensed programs. Attended Start date and time.

Store it in a safe location. Ignore the last power-down operation message on the IPL Options display. If you need to change system values, you can do so now.

What is IPL? Webopedia Definition

Type the following and press Enter. System date Use the current date.

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Lista moich zachcianek. Book. English (US) · Español · Português (Brasil) · Français (France) · Deutsch · Privacy · Terms · Advertising · Ad Choices · Cookies ·. ISBN ISBN Gregoire Delacourt. Download Lista moich zachcianek by Gregoire Delacourt. A oto lista mam, na którą nieustannie zapraszamy nowe mamusie: GODIVA A w domu na mnie dwóch moich ukochanych mężczyzn czeka!.

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>Dieta – reaktywacja< ;-D - Forum rodzicow w Holandii - Forum dyskusyjne |

Republic of Thieves Ebook Format pliku: Random House data wydania: Random House Data wydania: Martinacclaimed author Scott Lynch continues to astound and entertain with his thrillingly inventive, wickedly funny, suspense-filled adventures featuring con artist extraordinaire Locke Zzchcianek.

And The Republic of Thieves is his most captivating novel yet. With what should have been the greatest heist of their career gone spectacularly sour, Locke and his trusted partner, Jean, have barely escaped with their lives.

Or at least Jean has. But Locke is slowly succumbing to a deadly poison that no alchemist or physiker can cure. Yet just as the end is near, a mysterious Bondsmage offers Locke an opportunity that will either save him or finish him off once and for all.

Magi political elections are imminent, and the factions are in need of a pawn. If Locke agrees to play the role, sorcery will be used to purge the venom from his bodythough the process will be so excruciating he may well wish for death.

Aleksandra Bartelska

Locke is opposed, but two factors cause his will to crumble: She is the love of his life, his zachciqnek in skill and wit, and now, his greatest rival. Locke was smitten with Sabetha from his first glimpse of her as a young fellow orphan and thief-in-training.

But after a tumultuous courtship, Sabetha broke away. Now they will reunite in yet another clash of wills. For faced with his one and only match in both love and trickery, Locke must choose whether to fight Sabethaor to woo her. It is a decision on which both their lives may depend. Locke and company remain among the most engaging protagonists in fantasy. Martin and Steven Erikson. No critic is likely to fault Lynch in his overflowing qualities of inventiveness, audacious draftsmanship, and sympathetic characterization.

>Dieta – reaktywacja< ;-D

Maybe my top five. If you have read it, you should probably read it again. A jednak w dniu Wigilii do jego drzwi puka nieznajoma Twoja ocena 5 – b.

Sonia Draga format pliku – MP3.


Have a look at , for ActivePerl documentation. As an alternative to ActivePerl, there is Strawberry Perl. This section describes what is ActivePerl – a free Perl engine for Windows, Perl Tutorials – Herong’s Tutorial Examples – Version , by Dr. Herong Yang. Easily learn how to install Perl and run your first script. If you are on Windows, you may see a choice of ActivePerl and Strawberry Perl.

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PERL was designed to be simple and direct.

We outlined active;erl that file manipulation and grep style functions are the bread and butter of PERL. Often times these types of tasks will require some form of user input. PERL can do exactly that imagine that and these next few pages of tutorial will walk you through the process step by step.

PERL is capable of quickly taking input from a user then manipulating it in some fashion and spitting out some sort of result. Whether the task at hand is complex file manipulation or just a simple conversion script, your script may require some sort of user-input. In a minute we will be taking a look at how to retrieve some user input via the command prompt but first, you may need to install a PERL compiler for your machine.

PERL comes pre-installed on many operating systems, like Linux for example.

For those of us running a version of Windows however, we must download and install some sort of program that allows us to access PERL scripts from DOS. There are many PERL compilations available for your machine.

Tkx::Tutorial – How to use Tkx

A simple Google search yields several million results. ActivePERL is the simplest of installers available and it is also free to download. Download the program, follow the onscreen installation guide, and you should have an active installation of PERL ready to go. To test the installation, make sure the program has fully completed installation and then run through the following:.

Just to be sure everything is running correctly.

PERL – Programming

Open up notepad or your preferred simple text editor and let’s make a beginning script. We’ll have our script print to the command prompt with the print tutofial just as we would if we were printing text to our web browser.

Copy the two lines above and save them in a directory that you are capable of accessing through DOS. You should now have activwperl basic concept of how to manage and run PERL scripts from the command prompt of your machine. Next we will be taking a look at how to manipulate user input via the command prompt.

Perl Forum Contact Us.

Perl Tutorial – Programming

To test the installation, make sure the program has tutoriaal completed installation and then run through the following: Click on Start, go to Run. Enter Command or cmd into the display box. At the command prompt type perl -v. Testing Script Just to be sure everything is running correctly. Advertise Here More Tutorials! Microsoft Office Tutorials Artist Tutorials.


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Thomas More and his Utopia. Karl Kautsky. Halaman 4. 3. The Economic Tendencies of the Reformation in England. Chapter II. THE MODE OF PRODUCTION. Read the full-text online edition of Thomas More and His Utopia (). Thomas More and his Utopia. Front Cover. Karl Kautsky. Russell & Russell, – Biography & Autobiography – pages.

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As a Humanist and a politician, More was in the front rank of his contemporaries, as a Socialist he was far ahead of them all. His political, religious, and Humanist writings are to-day only read by a small number of historians. Had he not written Utopia his name would scarcely be better known to-day than that of the friend who shared his fate, Hiz Fisher of Rochester. His socialism made him immortal. Unlike the historians of the idealistic school, we do not believe in a Holy Spit which illumines minds and fills them with ideas, to which the political and economic development adapts itself.

We rather start from the assumption that the contradictions and antagonisms which the economic development creates in society stimulate thought and provoke investigations by men who are favourably situated to prosecute such researches, so that they may understand what is going on before their eyes and remove the suffering which contemporary conditions entail. In this way arise political and social ideas which influence contemporary thought, or at least, particular classes, in the degree that they respond to the actual conditions, and which are correct so far as they coincide with the interests of the aspiring classes.

So it comes about that certain ideas are only operative under certain conditions, that ideas which at one time encounter indifference and even scorn are taken up with enthusiasm, and often without strict verification, a few decades later.

The materialist conception of history alone explains the influence of particular ideas. It is not concerned to deny that every age has its particular ideas which condition it, and that these ideas form the dynamics of social development. It does not, however, stop at this point, but proceeds to investigate the forces which set the machinery in motion, and these it finds in the material conditions.

It is clear that ideas must be fermenting for thomws time before they can exercise any influence on the masses. There is a tendency to reproach the masses with running after novelties, whereas the truth is that they cling most obstinately to the old. The antagonism of the new economic conditions to the transmitted conditions and the ideas which kutsky therewith must be fairly pronounced before it penetrates to the mind of the masses.

Where the acumen of the investigator perceives unbridgable antagonisms of classes, the average man sees only accidental personal disputes; where the investigator sees social evils which could only be removed by social transformations, the average man consoles himself with the hope that times are only temporarily bad and will soon improve.

We are not speaking akutsky the members thoas classes kark the decline, most of whom will not face facts, but have in mind the nascent classes, whose interests it is to see, but who cannot see until they bump right up against the new conditions. Their ideas also were conditioned by the newly developing material conditions, but these conditions were not yet sharply defined enough to render the aspiring classes accessible to these ideas.

But a thinker who takes his stand on the material conditions may be a whole epoch in advance of his time, if he perceives a newly evolving mode of production and its social consequences not only sooner than most of his contemporaries, but straining far into the future, also glimpses the more rational mode of production into which it will develop. Thomas More is one of the few who have been capable of this bold intellectual leap; at a time when the capitalist mode of production was in its infancy, he mastered its essential features so thoroughly that the alternative mode of production which he elaborated and contrasted with it as a mre for its evils, contained several of the most important ingredients of Modern Socialism.

The drift of his speculations, of course, escaped his contemporaries, and can only be properly appreciated by us to-day. Despite the immense economic and technical transformations of the last three hundred years, we find in Utopia a number of tendencies which are still operative in the Socialist Movement of our time.

Our first enquiry pertains to the causes of such an extraordinary phenomenon. Erasmus tells us how amiable, helpful, and full of sympathy with the poor and oppressed More was: Only in the northern countries of Western Europe were the material conditions in the sixteenth century favourable to the formation of such a disinterested character.

In the mercantile republics of Italy, as in the Courts of the Romance monarchies, egotism, the grand feature of the new mode of kagl, reigned absolutely; it kore openly, boldly, full of revolutionary defiance. It was a vast egotism, quite different from the cowardly, mendacious, despicable egotism of to-day, which hides itself behind conventional hypocrisy.

Thomas More and his Utopia

Generally speaking, in the towns of England and Germany, entirely different economic conditions prevailed from those in the Italian towns, and to a lesser degree in the towns of France and Spain. Agriculture, together with the Mark constitution, still formed to a great extent the basis even of the urban mode of production; the separation of the country from the town was nowhere completely defined. Tillage of the soil must then have been a chief support of the citizens.

At the commencement of the sixteenth century the primitive agrarian communism still existed in England. It had survived under cover of feudalism, and only then began to yield place to another system of agriculture. The features which corresponded to primitive communism still existed, especially among the lower population, and we meet them in More only slightly glossed over with the Humanistic and courtier traits and the self-censure which the conditions imposed upon him.

But sympathy with the poor does not make one a socialist, although without that sympathy no one is likely to become a socialist. In order that socialist sentiments and ideas should grow out of this interest, it must be conjoined with a special economic situation, the existence of a working proletariat as a permanent mesa phenomenon, and on the other hand profound economic insight.

The existence of a proletariat of vagabonds creates benevolence and induces almsgiving, but does not produce a socialism of the modern variety. The only persons who had then learnt to think scientifically and methodically, to generalise, and who were, therefore; capable of formulating a theoretical socialism, were the Humanists.

Now in the northern countries Humanism was an exotic growth, in which no class had a special interest. While the Humanists in Italy were busily engaged in active affairs, and therefore gave expression to the economic and political tendencies of their time and country, the great majority of German Humanists were merely schoolmasters with no glimmering of practical affairs, who, instead of delving into the past for weapons in the struggles of the present, stood aloof from those struggles and retired to their studies, in order to live wholly in the past.

On the contrary, the rudeness, the barbarism, the boorishness into which Germany sank to an increasing extent after the sixteenth century, and from which she did not emerge until the beginning of the eighteenth century, rendered the maintenance of science in Germany possible only by its being completely divorced from active life.

The discoveries of the Portuguese in the second half of the fifteenth century opened a sea route to India. At the same time the old communications with the East through Asia Minor and Egypt were interrupted by the invasions of the. Turks, while the caravan routes from Central Asia had previously been closed in consequence of local upheavals. This paralysed not only the trade of the Mediterranean seaboard, but also that of the towns on the great German waterways, which, besides being the intermediaries of the trade between Italy and the North, traded with the East on their own account by other routes — via Trapezunt and the Black Sea as well as the land route over Russia.

The total effect of these changes was to sever the arteries of the German towns, especially of the Hansa towns on the Baltic and the towns in Southern Germany, Nuremberg, Augsburg, etc. The towns on the Rhine and on the estuaries of the North Sea suffered less, but the trade which they supported was insignificant and its direction had changed. It flowed not from East to West, from South to North, but contrariwise.

Antwerp became for the sixteenth century what Constantinople had been in the fourteenth century and what London was to become in the eighteenth century: The proximity of Antwerp inevitably exercised the most stimulating effect upon the commerce of England, and especially of London. Out of mercantile the beginnings of industrial capital were already beginning to develop. Englishmen began to manufacture wool in their own country after the Flemish example, and even in the time of Henry VIII complaints were heard of the decay of independent handicraft in wool-combing.

But in the England of More the beginnings of the capitalist mode of production in agriculture were much more perceptible than these nuclei of industrial capital. The causes of this have already been indicated: Next to wool, timber and fuel were important agricultural products in England, in view of the growth of the towns, as was also barley for the Flemish breweries.

The demand for wool grew in the degree that manufactures on the one hand, and the means of transport on the other, developed. At the outset English wool found its chief market in the Netherlands, but at the end of the fifteenth century it was being exported both to Italy and to Sweden.

Among other things, this may be inferred from two commercial treaties which Henry VII concluded with Denmark and Florence in As the market grew, the merchants and great landowners of England redoubled their efforts to extend wool production.

Karl Kautsky: Thomas More and his Utopia ()

The landowners found the simplest way of doing this was to claim for themselves the common lands which the peasants had a right to use. Thus the peasant was more and more deprived of the opportunity of keeping cattle, his entire business fell into disorder, and financial ruin overtook him. All kinds of ,autsky were adopted. Not merely individual peasants, but sometimes the inhabitants of entire villages and even small townships were expelled, to make room for sheep.

Utolia long as the landlords themselves farmed their estates, or, as happened for a short period, leased portions of them to tenants, to whom they advanced the necessary agricultural plant, thomaas, etc. There was no point in extending his property unless he was able at the same time to add to his plant and stock.

This limit melted away and the land hunger of the great landowners knew no bounds with the arrival of the capitalist farmer, who used his own capital to employ wage workers to cultivate the land which he leased.

Thomas More and His Utopia

This class arose in England in the last third of the fifteenth century. It rapidly increased in the sixteenth century, in consequence of the unexampled profits which it then made, and which not only accelerated the accumulation of capital, but also attracted capitalists from the towns.

The rise of profits is to be especially attributed to the depreciation of gold and silver which was caused by the immense transfers of the precious metals from America to Europe; the effect of this monetary depreciation may well have been accentuated by the currency debasement of princes. In kausky course of the sixteenth century the prices of agricultural products rose by to per cent.

Rents, on the other hand, were slow in rising, as the leases ran for long terms, and did not keep pace with the prices of agricultural products.

Therefore they fell actually if not nominally. This not only increased the number of farmers and the amount of their capital, but also ,ore a fresh incentive for the large landowners to extend their estates, in order to make good their losses in this way.

Karl Kautsky, Thomas More and His Utopia – PhilPapers

The consequence was a rapid impoverishment of the small peasants. A concurrent phenomenon was the dispersal of the feudal bands of retainers, to which we have made reference in the first part. The retainers were in any case a burden for the working people.

Where they remained in existence, they were a burden on the peasants who were obliged to support them. Where they were broken up, they became a scourge to the wage earners, by swelling the ranks of the unemployed.

The fourteenth and fifteenth centuries were the Golden Age for the peasants and wage workers of England. At the end of this epoch they were both suddenly plunged into deepest poverty. The number of workless swelled to terrible dimensions. The most gruesome punishments were not, of course, calculated either to diminish their numbers or to restrain them from crime punishment for crime was uncertain, but sure was the punishment for abstention from crime: Not much better than the situation of the workless was that of the propertyless workers, who then began to form a numerous class in agriculture.

What parliamentary legislation had only incompletely achieved in the preceding two centuries was easily attained in the sixteenth century by the oppressive weight of the reserve army of the workless. Real wages diminished, and labour time was extended. Food prices rose by per cent. When capitalism first invades industry and then turns to agriculture, it seems at the outset to wear a benevolent aspect.

It must aim at a constant extending of the market, of production, while the importation of labour-power proceeds but slowly. In its early stages, such an industry is always complaining of the lack of labour-power. Capitalists must outbid handicraftsmen and peasants in order to entice away from them their journeymen and bondsmen: In this way capitalism began in many countries; it was hailed as a blessing.

Not so in England, where it first invaded and revolutionised agriculture. Improvements in methods of cultivation made many workers superfluous. Capitalism in agriculture meant the direct setting-free of workers.

In England this process of setting-free proceeded in its severest forms, at a time when industry was developing but slowly and required only small supplies of labour-power; least of all, the ignorant country labourer.

And hand in hand with the separation of the workers from the land, from their means of production, a rapid concentration of landed property into a few hands was going on. Nowhere else in Europe, therefore, were the unfavourable reactions of the capitalist mode of production upon the working classes so immediately obvious as in England; nowhere did the unhappy workers clamour so urgently for assistance. More was not the only person who sought for and propounded such expedients.

From numerous writings of that time, from numerous Acts of Parliament we may perceive how deep was the impression made by the economic revolution then proceeding, and how generally the shabby practices of the landlords and their tenants were condemned. But none of those who put forward remedies had a wider outlook, to none of them came the conviction that the sufferings incident to the new mode of production could only be ended by a transition to another and higher mode of production; none of them, save More, was a Socialist.

A theory of Socialism could only arise within the realm of Humanism.