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Published on Dec View Download Liability The data contained herein purport solely to describe the product and are not a warranty of performance or characteristic.
This may lead, however, to minor dis-crepancies between the product supplied and its “Technical Description” or “Instructions for Installation and Operation”. This document has been janual reviewed. Appropriate measures must be dia,ux before unpacking modules or withdrawing them from equipment racks. Essential precautions to prevent ESD damage when handling or working on modules are grounding straps for technical personnel and the provision of anti-static work benches.
Modules may only be shipped either in their original packing or installed in equipment racks. GENERAL Because of their low attenuation in the carrier frequency range between 20 and kHz, HV transmission lines are a good means of communicating information over medium to long distances 20 to km, re-spectively to km. The maximum range of a PLC communications channel operating at the lower end of the carrier frequency range up to about 80 kHz can as much in special cases as about km, whi ch cannot be even remotely matched by other means of communication at the disposal of power com-panies cables, pilot wires, normal radio or point-to-point radio without repeaters or repeater stations.
By installing appropriate coupling devices and line traps in power stations and substations communications channels can be provided, which exhibit – extremely high mechanical rigidity and high reliability of the interconnecting lines – lines and terminal equipment, which belong to and is permanently under the control of the power utility – low, relatively constant attenuation and moderate janual noise level corona under normal atmo-spheric conditions – high short-duration noise level bursts due to the operation of circuit-breakers and load-break isolators The system includes means to combat burst noise, which virtually exclude any possibility of false signals or tripping; thus the reliability of PLC channels is roughly equivalent to that of the terminal equipment.
In spite of the additional cost represented by the coupling devices and line traps, especially at EHV levels, the overall cost of a PLC communications system is relatively low compared with other 47. and the cost relation becomes even more favourable the longer the distance. These are the two main reasons why many power utilities prefer PLC for power system communication.
Of the possible PLC techniques, single sideband modulation with a 4 kHz spacing to make the best use of the available frequency bands and permitted transmitting powers, and the European practice, mainly for reasons of cost, of multiple use of PLC channels for speech, data and protection signals have become widely established.
All the relevant CCIR and CCITT recommendations in IEC Publication were also taken into account, in order to ensure reliable coupling of channels at the AF interfaces in power system control centres, power stations dialjx transformer stations between power utility PLC, normal radio and point-to-point radio and also leased back-up links.
Part I is devoted to describing the equipment and comprises the Sections “Type designations and versions”, “Mechanical design”, “Technical data” and “Principle of operation”. Part II “Applications, programming and testing” describes the possible operating modes and equipment configurations.
Another section deals with the setting and programming of the different versions. The last section is concerned with system operating level and adjusting the operating level of the equipment. Part III contains details related to installation, commissioning, operation and maintenance. Part IV “Appendicies” is a collection of pictures, dimensioned drawings and block diagrams. The programming, tuning and testing instructions are contained in the supplementary document 5HYNTA.
The 40 W class includes the following types: The available AF band can be used as required. A large number of espao, modes can be achieved with the following AF interfaces. A typical allocation of frequencies in the AF band is given in Fig.
Using the standard pilot channel, the fol-lowing alternatives are possible: In this case the pilot oc-cupies a bandwidth corresponding to a Bd channel within the AF band. Both mahual can be used either on their own or in combination. They enable data transfer terminal equipment to be directly connected via the modem’s serial interface and also speech fre-quency modem signals to be connected via the telecontrol interface.
The power of teleprotection signals applied to the AUX. The signal available at AUX.
This possibility has a positive influence on the cost of setting up telecontrol networks, because it avoids the need of separate equipment mankal and auxiliary supplies.
Fully programmable VFT channel with DIL switch and jumper settings for baud rate, transmitting and re-ceiving frequencies and transmitter level. The following operating modes are also possible: Thus only manuall channels are relayed to the next PLC section in intermediate stations, which makes the bandwidth of locally terminating channels available for other purposes on the next section. It is frequently the case in stations at nodes in the power system, that data channels have to be transmitted in a number of directions.
For this purpose there is the AF bus, which enables several telecontrol interfaces equipped with transit filters to be operated in parallel. There are also ten special group delay equalized filters available. Other filters for specific applications can be fitted subsequently as required. All the functional blocks for processing transmitter and receiver speech signals and the associated signal logic are contained in this unit. The circuits required for a four-wire service telephone are also provided.
The signalling and control logic signals are transferred via opto-coupler interfaces. Provision is made by appropriate programming for inverting the dialing pulses.
The receiver channel is blocked should the signal quality or strength become too low, or a tripping signal from the NSD 50 be present. The smallest version of the NSD 50 has two units and is able to transfer two independent tripping signals.
Two tripping channels usually suffice for the protection of a transmission line. The scheme can be extended to four tripping channels by simply inserting a further relay interface. There are then two groups of signals each comprising two permissive and two direct transfer tripping signal, the latter having priority.
For exam-ple, with the maximum complement of four transfer tripping signals per PLC channel and two PLC channels, first and second main protections can be provided for a double circuit line. The receiver in the opposite station continuously monitors the pilot and gives alarm, if signal quality should fall below a permissible level.
In the event of a fault on the protected line, the NSD 50 interrupts the pilot and transmits a corresponding tripping signal in the speech band of the PLC equipment. Accordingly, control signals from the NSD 50 also interrupt the transmission of speech and any super audio data channels, which may permissibly be switched off, and also boost the transmitter power briefly to its maximum.
By making use of the pilot signal generated by the PLC equipment and the transmission of tripping signals in the speech band, the NSD 50 requires no additional PLC bandwidth. The following alternatives are provided for the pilot: Should one or several monitored parameters indicate an alarm condition, the corresponding LED lights on the P4LA, respectively on the unit concerned.
Precautions are initiated inside the equipment and five auxiliary relay contacts are provided for giving alarm.
Fault-finding is made simpler by the display of a fault code on the pilot and supervision unit P4LA. This is generated by briefly pressing the test tone button. The fault code gives additional information relating to the cause of the failure see Table 2.
The pick-up and reset times of alarm signals are given in Table 2. Other signals depend on type of fault. Alarm code H7 is displayed on P4LA, if the test tone button is briefly pressed. The operating principle of the missing unit supervision facility can be seen from Fig.
This enables the following to be distinguished: All channels give alarm.
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Corresponding channel gives alarm. Corresponding channels 1 and 3 and also channels 2 and 4 give alarm. Channels 2 and 4 give alarm. This is achieved by briefly pressing the test tone button. A fault code is displayed by briefly pressing the test tone button.
OE no fault PCB of the basic equipment missing: The setting ranges marked may only be used for reductions of power and not for channel loading see Sections 9.
In the case of PLC, this involves interrupting the transmission of speech and usually also of the modem signals in the “superaudio” channel above the speech signals, so that the full ETL transmitter power is available for transmitting the teleprotection signals. This achieves the maximum SNR at the receiver. The ratio between the power of the boosted teleprotection signal and the power of the test tone signal is defined as the boost ratio BR and is normally expressed in decibels.
The achievable boost ratio depends on which PLC signals may be interrupted during the transmission of the teleprotection signals. The boost ratio can be set on DIL switches to one of the following values: Other values are possible in exceptional circumstances with the aid of ENFX resistors.
The boost ratio is also dependent on which channels may be interrupted. In all cases the actual setting is the next value down from the one calculated. The boost ratio is calculated using the following equations: The standard NSD 61 scheme operates with its own pilot signal. Teleprotection and pilot signals have the same levels: Planning should not only take the present situation into account, future system expansion must also be included.
Where damage is as-certained, the last carrier must be notified in writing as quickly as possible. For further assistance in such matters, please consult your local ABB company or agent. The equipment must be switched off during installation.
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Where the external connections have already been made, all isolating terminals must be open. Cement floors and walls should be sealed with a suitable paint. Wherever possible, the floor should have a semi-conducting plastic coating.
The room should be well ventilated.
This cubicle is fitted with a hinged frame for mounting the equipment racks and can be erected in different ways: Sufficient room must be left in front of cubicles to enable the hinged frame to be opened without striking a wall or other obstacles.
There should also be sufficient room to give easy access for maintenance and setting up test instruments and equipment. To allow the hinged frame to be fully opened without hindrance, avoid locating a cubicle in a corner. Cubicles not equipped with hinged frames must be accessible from the front and from the rear.
Cubicles normally stand on a base, which facilitates cleaning the floor and the connection of cables. Cubicles, which are not secured to the floor, tip forwards when the hinged frame is opened. The auxiliary supply connections are at the top of the left-hand side plate of the power amplifier rack P7LA see Appendix A.