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Skip to main content. Log In Sign Up. Las tout le texte est interdite. The acronyms found on the Massalia coinage, interpreted not as monograms made up of letters but as figures made up of numbers expressed in Greek with the same lettershave unexpectedly been revealed to be progressive numbers that gradually show the advanced minting ,ucasystem. The numbers used on the minted coins simplified the programming of the monetary series and helped mint officials and workers to recognize and better count some specific groups of coins.

Dans le volume 10, de la revue Omni, F. This characteristic suggests that the letters singled out certain groups of coins, minted in succession: Obolos by NomosWebauction 3, 15 Nov. Obviously to mint the coins falling within each group marked by a different letter which we can suppose for example to consist of 10, pieces several obverse and reverse dies were used in sequence until the predetermined number of coins to be minted was reached, as it clearly appears in figure no.

It is clear that we find alphabetical numbering on the drachms minted at the beginning of the 2nd century BC in Massalia, like those used in the first half of the 3rd century BC by the Alexandrian scholars to number the 24 books of the Cahalogo and the 24 books of the Odyssey: This use of alphabetical numbering is confirmed in many 1 Many are the studies on Massalia coinage but the detailed cataloguing of the emission of drachms accomplished by CHARRA J.

For Depeyrotp. The alphabetical numbering of groups of coins minted in succession is found in many Greek mints and in different periods4: Even in the last decades of the 5th century BC in the nearby town of Poseidonia, an issue of staters was minted and identified by a letter in alphabetical sequence on every obverse and reverse die of the issue6 figure no. As can be seen, Cantilena and Carbone correlate the affixing of letters in alphabetical sequence on the dies with a massive programmed production of currency: Silver drachms minted in Velia Pucasystem in BC.

Silver staters minted in Poseidonia Lucania in BC. Poseidon standing right, wearing chlamys and brandishing trident; letter in left field: KraayOxford 7. British Museum Collection 6. Henzen, list no. For Troxell8, who refuses any attempt to see dates in these sequence letters, the coin groups that are linked to these letters are the different issues minted in succession.

Solidus Numismatik, Online Auction 9, 8 Oct. And also in Massalia we find this type of alphabetical numbering with double letters as is attested by a sequence that starts with AA and finishes with ZZ some elements are proposed in figure no. There are also some numberings that do not use letters in alphabetical order but increasing numbers: The different groups of sequentially minted coins are numbered13 consecutively in a sequence that runs from 1 to A part of this numerical sequence is proposed in figure no.

The way with which the different groups of coins are numbered suggests that they were all made up with the same fatalogo of coins. Archaeological finds confirm a strong presence of tetradrachms in the name and types of Alexander the Great in Syria coming from Pamphylia starting from the first 40 years of the second century BC.

Other signs were obtained with the addition or the multiplication of two basic signs. Because the classic Greek alphabet was only composed by 24 letters, 3 archaic letters were also used, falling into disuse: This circumstance suggests that catzlogo origins of the Ionic numeral system dates back at least to the 5th catallogo BC, when these letters were still in use. Generally when the letters indicating the numbers were tiny they were followed by an apex. Other symbols from other minor numeral systems that indicated a certain amount of money were widespread everywhere like for lucasjstem the symboloften simplified with A, used in Andania, city of Messenia, to indicate the amount of 10 mine, equal to 1.

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It also happened that in both common language and in numerical notations numbers were expressed in tens dekadeshundreds hekatontadesthousands chiliadestens of thousands myriades and hundreds of thousands dekakismyriades: In the numerical notations carried on the coins and in other contexts, a number could be expressed in an understood method, in tens, hundreds, thousands, etc.

Furthermore on the coins there was an extensive use of the multiplicative principle because often two or more numbers were combined and placed next to each other: A further set of groups of coins minted in sequence were distinguished, as well as the new numerical progression, by affixing a different symbol for every group fig. Zeus enthroned left holding scepter and eagle; in the right field: Roma Numismatics, E-Sale 2, 2 Nov. Zeus enthroned left holding scepter and eagle; numerical notations under the throne of Zeus; in the right field: Roma Numismatics, e-Sale 4, 28 Dec.

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VAuctions, Auction5 Maylot 16, It seems clear that the coins groups minted in alphabetical or numerical order responded to both the accounting needs of the issuing authorities to program coin series activities, and even the coins minted by the minting officials because it helped them distinguish and count better the specific groups of coins.

It was very important in antiquity, as in the agreement at the end of the 5th century BC between Phokaia and Mytilene. And the numbering by means of sequential letters or increasing numbers of groups of coins minted in sequence seems to be a useful way to keep track of the coins issued Afterwards in Massalia they did not use alphabetical letters to keep count but increasing numbers expressed in Greek language with the same alphabetical letters inside the same issue, as happened – according to my interpretation in many other Greek mints even Velia, among others.

When the dies were damaged or needed to be substituted, the ensuing dies were engraved with the same numbers if it was necessary to complete that quantity of coins, or even higher numbers than the previous ones, if they went on to mint a further quantity of coins. For example, the acronyms on the coins in figure no. In the case the numbers on the tetradrachms in the name and types of Alexander the Great minted in Aspendos are considered dates, it is necessary to determine if even the numbers carried on the tetradrachms in the name and types of Alexander the Great minted in Phaselis and Perge are dates referred to two separated eras or to one provincial Pamphylian era.

The overlapped numbers in the numerical notation on the reverse of the coin no.

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The numbers on the obverse and reverse of the coin no. On both sides of the coin no. Lucssystem Numismatik, Auction 86, 5 Maylot 2. Gerhard Hirsch Nachfolger, Auction8 Maylot 2. So, for example, in the 2nd-1st century BC on two Boeotian epigraphs we can find numbers taken from the Attic numeral system used inside the same figure close to numbers taken from the Ionic numeral system: Furthermore, the two systems are seen side by side in a number of papyrus-rolls written in Greek found at Herculaneum: Roma Numismatics Limited, Auction 4, 30 Sept.

Nomos, Cata,ogo 11, 9 Oct. Centre Numismatique du Palais Royal, no. All these progressive numeral notations19 were recorded because it helped to keep count of the pieces gradually minted since they made specific recognizable groups of coins that would otherwise be lucaaystem into one indistinguishable and single mass. Little by little, the mint masters minted the coins, divided them in numerical notations and recorded them in a proper memo: In this way officials could control the whole amount of precious rare metal received at the beginning before it was transformed in coins.

Another numbering sequence is found in the following issue in figure no. On the reverse of the coin no. On the following coins the same notations are found on both the obverse and the reverse; in particular on the coin no. As can be seen, some numerical notations recur identically on some coins of the issue of lucasytem no.

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We have already analyzed two different numerical sequences reported on so many Massalia issues. But the most skeptical readers still continue to screw ljcasystem their nose and ask: We then look for elements in epigraphic sources that help distinguish numbers from letters.

After the victories at Marathon and Salamis that removed the Persians away from Greece, Athens gathered around itself many allies who pledged to contribute each year to maintaining and increasing the fleet.

The Athenian Tribute Lists of every year was carved on the stone. So in the List of the year figure no. Well, ccatalogo same number was used even on some tetradrachms minted in Amphipolis in the name of Lucaysstem the Great in BC: While in the Ccatalogo Tribute List no one had a doubt that what came after the word that indicated the Aphytis citizens was a number, because it was something already studied and ascertained. In the Alexander coin case, however, many people were skeptical about the fact that lucaststem monogram could actually be the number 50 from the Attic or Acrophonic system simply because it was now affirmed for the first time.

A fact, however, remains undeniable: The confirmation of the correctness on this supposition derives from exercises done by a schoolboy on a wax tablet21 in the VI-VII century AC, transcribed in figure no.

The Athenian Tribute List of the cataloho particular. The principle has remained unchanged even in today’s mathematical writing, according to which two juxtaposed numbers are multiplied together, concisely allowing to report on the coins catalogoo higher numbers: Even if the doubt has been dispelled that the multiplication of two combined numbers gives rise to a large sum expressed in drachms, there will remain one last at least I hope so perplexity.

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In the reconstruction of the Massalia issues so far shown and in the reconstruction of the issues that will be shown lateroften some numbers were interpreted by the writer in an understood way in hundreds, thousands or other decimals. Is this a legitimate supposition? The answer is that lucasystek use of implying several order decimals for a given number was very common in both the Greek and Roman world where it was positively attested.

The edition consulted is the one printed in G. In this Compendium on the pages you can read: For example, semel sestertium is the same as semel centena millia sestertium. And decies sestertium means decies centena millia lucasystej sometimes we find only the adverb, being omitted or implied the word sestertium, or millia sestertium. For example, debet mihi decies, that is to say decies sestertium, or decies centena milia sestertium. Quadragintorum milia res implies sestertium.

Vespasianus rhetoribus annua centena constituit, or rather centena milia sestertium. In Latin, then, exactly as it was in the reconstruction of the numerical sequences on the Massalia coins, to understand the order of sizes of which we are talking about, we must contextualize every single number: Fifty drachms or fifty thousands of drachms?

Although there is no evidence that indicates in the Greek world the use of implying different decimals orders for the written digits, we clearly understand it from the reconstruction of the numerical sequences reported on the Massalia coins. And whether Titus Livius has conformed to this use in the middle of the text written on papyrus or parchment, let’s just imagine if the Massalia minters did not take advantage of carrying such big numbers luczsystem a little coin with only a 16 mm diameter Per esempio, debet mihi decies, per dire decies sestertium, o lucasyste, centena milia sestertium.

Quadragintorum milia res si sottintende sestertium. Yale University Art Gallery Returning to the Massalia issues, we notice that the information of the quantity of pieces minted little by little is still different in an issue of BC: