Litsea glaucescens Kunth is a native plant from Central America and Mexico, mainly distributed in the states of Chiapas Nayarit and Veracruz. Thirty-one compounds are identified in the essential oil of Mexican bay (Litsea glaucescens scens), which is dominated by ± % 1,8-cineole, . Thirty-one compounds are identified in the essential oil of Mexican bay (Litsea glaucescens var. glaucescens), which is dominated by ± % 1.
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To receive news and publication updates for Evidence-Based Complementary and Alternative Medicine, enter your email address in the box below. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution Licensewhich permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. This study shows the seasonal effect on the antioxidant, antiproliferative, and antimicrobial activities of L.
F6, and ARPE cell lines. Antimicrobial potential was evaluated against Staphylococcus aureus and Escherichia coli using a microdilution method.
All the LG extracts presented high antioxidant activity and PC, with quercitrin and epicatechin being the most abundant. All extracts presented flaucescens antiproliferative activity against the cell lines evaluated, HeLa being the most susceptible of them. These findings provide new information about the seasonal effect on the PC and biological properties of LG extracts.
Clearly, antioxidant activity was the most important with respect to the other two. Nowadays, diseases related to oxidative stress and to lktsea resistance are considered the main public health concern, leading to the highest mortality rates worldwide [ 12 ].
Litsea glaucescens Images
Oxidative stress has been explained in terms of the overproduction of intracellular reactive oxygen species, which may produce damage to biomolecules such as DNA, RNA, lipids, and proteins [ 3 ]. Therefore, the cellular damage would eventually result in the development of chronic diseases like cancer, atherosclerosis, rheumatoid arthritis, diabetes, chronic inflammation, and cardiovascular ills, among others [ 4 ]. On the other hand, antimicrobial resistance is the result of antibiotic misuse, which conduces to stronger infections with complicated clinical treatments like respiratory tract infections, rhinosinusitis, otitis media, cystic fibrosis lung infection, dental caries, and chronic wounds, among others [ 56 ].
These complications reduce the conventional antibiotics efficacy and length of the hospitalization stays and increase the medical treatment costs associated with the research and application of broad spectrum antibiotics [ 7 ].
Each year, around 2 million people are infected by antibiotic resistant bacteria in USA and thousands die due to infections with clinical complications [ 8 ]. In this context, natural agents emerge as a safe alternative to reduce the problem of the oxidative stress and antimicrobial diseases. Their positive health benefits are associated with the presence of chemical compounds derived from secondary metabolism, such as phenolic compounds, essential oils, terpenes, saponins, alkaloids, and polypeptides, which are used by plants as part of their defense mechanisms [ 1112 ].
In addition, these compounds had shown a broad spectrum of biological activities, demonstrating the potential of plants as alternative drugs [ 1314 ].
Litsea glaucescens Kunth — The Plant List
However, the content of bioactive compounds depends on biotic and abiotic factors such as the presence of microorganisms and competitor species around the plant, temperature, light intensity, UV radiation, humidity, water, minerals, and environmental contamination [ 1516 ]. These factors regulate the production of secondary metabolites and subsequently the potential use of medicinal plants [ 17 ]. In this sense, the study of the effect that the different seasons have on the chemical composition and biological properties of plants can contribute to their optimal use in the folk medicine [ 1819 ].
Its leaves have been traditionally used as food seasoning, as well as remedy in folk medicine against central nervous system illness, depression, colic, pain, vomit, and diarrhea [ 21 ]. These activities are mainly related to the presence of different compounds such as terpenes and phenolic compounds [ 2223 ]. The goal of the present study was to evaluate the seasonal effect on the antioxidant, antimicrobial, and the antiproliferative activities of L.
Collected leaves were washed and dried. Total phenolic concentration was determined with Folin-Ciocalteu reagent, according to the method described by Velazquez et al. Identification of phenolic compounds was carried out by comparison of the retention times and spectra with those of authentic standards.
Quantification of both compounds was performed through calibration curves. Free-radical scavenging activity was measured following the modified method reported by Usia et al. IC 50 values were calculated throughout linear regression analysis using Microsoft Excel software. Ferric reducing ability was evaluated according to the methodology described by Benzie and Strain [ 26 ]. Oxygen radical absorbance capacity assay was carried out using a modified method described by Ou et al.
AAPH reagent was used as peroxyl radical generator and fluorescein as the fluorescent indicator. Antibacterial activity of extracts was evaluated by the modified microdilution broth method [ 24 ]. MICs values were calculated from the Optical Density data using the following equations: The cell line M F6 murine B-cell lymphoma was provided by Dr.
Cell proliferation was evaluated through the MTT assay [ 28 ] modified by Hernandez et al. Extracts were previously dissolved in DMSO. DMSO did not exceed 0. Caffeic acid phenethyl ester CAPE was used as a positive control in the antiproliferative assay.
Metabolically active cells reduced tetrazolium salt to colored formazan crystals, which were dissolved with acidic isopropyl alcohol. IC 50 values were calculated using nonlinear regression analysis in Microsoft Excel software. Data analysis was performed using the NCCS,statistical software. Significance level in Type I error was. The phenolic content of the L. These data agree with those reported by Iqbal and Bhanger [ 30 ], Brahmi et al.
In the three studies, they found that autumn extracts presented the highest phenolic concentrations, in comparison with the samples of the other seasons.
To identify the main phenolic compounds of the extracts of L.
The chromatographic profiles of the four seasonal extracts are shown in Figure 2. As can be observed, the evident difference among them is the height of the chromatographic peaks related to the concentration of the phenolics. Comparison of the retention times and spectra with those from a set of commercial standards allowed us to identify two of the main phenolic compounds present in L.
Quercitrin was the most abundant phenolic compound in the four extracts, and to the best of our knowledge, this is the first time that it is reported as a component of L. In this work, the ALGE extract presented the highest epicatechin content, while a similar amount of this compound was observed in the other extracts. Phenolic composition of plants is mainly affected by biotic and abiotic factors. In normal conditions, abiotic factors such as thermal stress play an important role in the biosynthesis of phenolic compounds in plants, because they induce the phenylalanine ammonia-lyase PAL activation, which is the main enzyme involved in the biosynthesis of phenylpropanoid [ 3435 ].
In addition, the increase in the enzymatic activity of PAL is related to an adaptation of the plant to stress [ 36 ]. Therefore, it is possible to hypothesize that L. On the other hand, phenolic compounds are associated with a wide range of biological activities.
To glaucecens to the biological characterization of this plant, we evaluated its potential as antioxidant, antimicrobial, and antiproliferative agent. Different assays are available and have been used to evaluate the antioxidant activity of plant extracts.
In the present study, we evaluated the antioxidant activity of L. Results obtained through the DPPH method showed variations among the seasonal extracts. In addition, based on Blois [ 37 ] and Fidrianny et al. These results agree with previous studies related to plants from Litsea genus such as Glaucezcens glutinosa, Litsea floribundaand Litsea japonica, where IC 50 values ranged from 9. On the other hand, ferric reducing power of the L. The corresponding values are shown in Table 2 ; and as can be observed there are significant differences among them.
These values are higher than those reported before for other Litsea species 1. In addition, according to the classification of medicinal plants performed by Wong et al.
Litsea glaucescens ·
The capacity of L. Although blaucescens the extracts had strong antioxidant activity, the results presented here demonstrated that during the winter the capacity of L. The three types of tests performed in this study provided evidences about the high ability glaucescwns the four extracts to transfer electron and hydrogen atoms to stabilize free radicals and reduce metals, related to their litxea antioxidant activity.
In addition, the significant effect that the seasons had on the antioxidant capacity of L. Additionally, the four extracts exhibited an interesting ability to act as preventive and chain-breaking antioxidants with activity against biological and synthetic radicals.
These facts suggest that they have glahcescens potential to stabilize biological radicals and to inhibit the generation of reactive oxygen species, which could contribute to reducing the oxidative stress caused by them and therefore to avoiding the DNA damage. It is well known that the antioxidant activity of natural products is strongly related to the content of phenolic compounds that they have, and the results obtained in this work agree with that fact.
The regression coefficients of the linear correlations for each series are presented in Figure 3.
As can be observed, positive slopes were obtained in all the cases. On the other hand, the lowest regression coefficient was obtained for the correlation between the data of the ORAC test versus CPC; however the value is still into an acceptable range. As we hypothesized, it seems that phenolic compounds were the main compounds responsible for the antioxidant activity of the four L.
Although the evaluated samples have other phenolic constituents not identified in this work, it is possible that epicatechin and quercitrin could play an important role in the high antioxidant activity of ALGE and SULGE, since different studies have demonstrated that both phenolics are considered among the most antioxidant phenolic compounds [ 4546 ] and that capacity has been attributed to the catechol and chromane moieties that they have Figure 4.
These structural features confer to both compounds a greater stability, compared with those that lack them [ 1347 ]. In addition, these facts determine also the redox potential and therefore the antioxidant activity of phenolic compounds [ 48 ].
The results of the antiproliferative activity evaluation of L. Although all the extracts inhibited the proliferation of human and murine cells lines, their effect was moderate. As can be observed in Table 3HeLa was the more sensitive cell line to the L. F6the four extracts had a similar antiproliferative effect. Even more, these last three values are the highest of Table 3 and constitute an evidence of the selectiveness of the L.
These findings are consistent with previous studies from Litsea plants. For example, in a study performed by Herrera-Carrera et al.
glauescens In the same way, Ndi et al. The results reported in this work are an evidence of the antiproliferative effect of L. In addition, the influence of seasons on its antiproliferative activity was significatively different in three of the four cell lines studied here. However, in some cases the registered differences were still modest.
Nevertheless, the structural features of these phenolics are important too such as those described above as enhancer of the antioxidant activity of the L. In this sense, Kinjo et al. On the other hand, glaucescenz studies have reported that phenolic compounds exhibit different mode of actions against cancerous cell lines, for example, the induction of apoptosis, the cell cycle arrest, and the prevention of carcinogen metabolic activation with the subsequent cell death [ 5556 ]. Results of antibacterial activity of L.
In contrast, no antimicrobial activity of any of the four extracts was observed against E.