American Exceptionalism. A Double-Edged Sword. Seymour Martin Lipset ( Author, George Mason University). Sign up for the monthly New Releases email. American exceptionalism is an ideology holding the United States as unique among nations in Lipset, American Exceptionalism, pp. 1, 17–19, –74, Lipset’s survey of American exceptionalism proceeds along several lines of attack. Comparisons with Britain and other nations of Europe form the backdrop of.
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American exceptionalism is an ideology holding the United States as unique among nations in positive or negative connotations, with ameriican to its ideas of democracy and personal freedom. Though the concept has no formal definition, there are some themes common to various conceptions of the idea. One is the history of the United States is different from other nations.
This ideology itself is often referred to as “American exceptionalism. Abraham Lincoln stated americaj the Gettysburg addressAmericans have a duty to ensure “government of the people, by the people, for the people, shall not perish from the earth. The theory of the exceptionalism of the Lipst. French political scientist and historian Alexis de Tocqueville was the first writer to describe the country as “exceptional” in and President Ronald Reagan is often credited with having crystallized this ideology in recent decades.
The exact term “American exceptionalism” was occasionally used in the 19th century. American Communists started using the English term “American exceptionalism” in factional fights.
It then moved into general use among intellectuals. He suggests these historians reason as follows:. America marches to a different drummer. Its uniqueness is explained by any or all of a variety lipsey reasons: Explanations of the growth of government in Europe are not expected to fit American experience, and vice versa. However, postnationalist scholars have rejected American exceptionalism, arguing the U.
In recent years scholars from numerous disciplines, as well as politicians and commentators in the traditional media, have debated the meaning and usefulness of the concept. Roberts and DiCuirci ask:.
Some historians support the concept of American exceptionalism but avoid the terminology, thereby avoid entangling themselves in rhetorical debates. Bernard Bailyna leading colonial specialist at Harvard, is a believer in the distinctiveness of American civilization.
Although he rarely, if ever, uses the phrase “American exceptionalism,” he insists upon the “distinctive characteristics of British North American life. Although the concept of American amerifan dates to the founding ideas,  the term was first used in the s. Some claim the phrase “American exceptionalism” originated with the American Communist Party in an English translation of a condemnation made in by Soviet leader Joseph Stalin criticizing Communist supporters of Jay Lovestone for the heretical belief the US was independent of the Marxist laws of history “thanks to its natural resources, industrial capacity, and absence of rigid class distinctions”.
Early examples of the term’s usage do include a declaration made at the American Communist convention proclaiming “the storm of the economic crisis in the United States blew down the house of cards of American exceptionalism”.
The phrase fell to obscurity after the s, and in the s American newspapers popularized it to describe America’s cultural and political uniqueness. The position of the Americans is therefore quite exceptional, and it may be believed that no democratic people will ever be placed in a similar one.
Their strictly Puritanical origin, their exclusively commercial habits, even the country they inhabit, which seems to divert their minds from the pursuit of science, literature, and the arts, the proximity of Europe, which allows them to neglect these pursuits without relapsing into barbarism, a thousand special causes, of which I have only been able to point out the most important, have singularly concurred to fix the mind of the American upon purely practical objects.
His passions, his wants, his education, and everything about him seem to unite in drawing the native of the United States earthward; his religion alone bids him turn, from time to time, a transient and distracted glance to heaven. Let us cease, then, to view all democratic nations under the example of the American people. Chestertonand Hilaire Belloc ; they did so in complimentary terms. From the s to the late 19th century, the McGuffey Readers sold million copies and were studied by most American students.
Skrabec argues the Readers “hailed American exceptionalism, manifest destinyand America as God’s country Furthermore, McGuffey saw America as having a future mission to bring liberty and democracy to the world.
He noted the increasing strength of American capitalism, and the country’s “tremendous reserve power”; strength and power which he said prevented Communist revolution.
In general, Americans have had consideration in national “uniqueness. Recently, socialists and other writers tried to discover or describe this exceptionalism of the U.
Why the World Needs a Powerful America Many scholars use a model of American exceptionalism developed by Harvard political scientist Louis Hartz. The national government that emerged was far less centralized or nationalized than its European counterparts.
Parts of American exceptionalism can be traced to American Puritan roots. They believed God had made a covenant with their people and had chosen them to provide a model for the other nations of the Earth. One Puritan leader, John Winthropmetaphorically expressed this idea as a ” City upon a Hill “—that the Puritan community of New England exceptionalizm serve as a model community for the rest of the world.
The Puritans’ moralistic values [ clarification needed ] remained part of the national identity of the United States for centuries, remaining influential to the present day. In this vein, Max Weber was a pioneer in delineating amegican connection between capitalism and exceptionalism. Eric Luis Uhlmann of Northwestern University argues that Puritan values were taken up by all remaining Americans as time went by. Schultz underlines how they helped America to keep to its Protestant Promiseespecially Catholics exceptiohalism Jews.
The ideas that created the American Revolution were derived from a tradition of republicanism that had been repudiated by the British mainstream. Historian Gordon Wood has argued, “Our beliefs in liberty, equality, constitutionalism, and the well-being of ordinary people came out of the Revolutionary era. So too did our idea that we Americans are a special exceptionalsim with a special destiny to lead the world toward liberty and democracy.
Thomas Paine ‘s Common Sense for the first time expressed the belief that America was not just an extension of Europe but a new land, a country of nearly unlimited potential and opportunity that had outgrown the British mother country.
These sentiments laid the intellectual foundations for the Revolutionary concept of American exceptionalism and aamerican closely tied to republicanismthe belief that sovereignty belonged to the people, not to a hereditary ruling exce;tionalism. Religious freedom characterized the American Revolution in unique ways—at a time when major nations had state religions.
Republicanism led by Thomas Jefferson and James Madison exceptionalisk modern constitutional republicanismwith a limit on ecclesiastical powers. Historian Thomas Kidd argues, “With the onset of the revolutionary crisis, a significant conceptual shift convinced Lipdet across the theological spectrum that God was raising up America for some particular purpose.
According to Tucker and HendricksonJefferson believed America “was the bearer of a new diplomacy, founded on the confidence of a free and virtuous people, that would secure ends based on the natural and universal rights of man, by means that escaped war and its corruptions”. Jefferson sought a radical break from the traditional European emphasis on “reason of state” which could justify any exxceptionalism and the usual priority of foreign policy and the needs of the ruling family over the needs of the people.
Jefferson envisaged America is becoming the world’s great ” Empire of Liberty “—that is, the model for democracy and republicanism. He identified his nation as a beacon to the world, for, he said on departing the presidency inAmerica was: Young argues that after the end ameerican the Cold War inneoconservative intellectuals and policymakers embraced the idea of an “American empire,” a national mission to establish wmerican and exceptionaliam in other nations, particularly poor ones.
She argues that after the September 11th, terrorist attacks, the George W. Bush administration reoriented foreign policy to an insistence on maintaining the supreme military and economic amerlcan of America, an attitude that harmonized with this new vision of American empire.
First Measured Century: Interview: Seymour Martin Lipset
Young exceptionalixm the Iraq War — exemplified American exceptionalism. Inconservative historians Larry Schweikart and Dave Dougherty argued that American Exceptionalism be based on four pillars: In a book entitled Exceptional: We have been essential to the preservation and progress of exceptionakism, and those who lead us in the years ahead must remind us, as RooseveltKennedyand Reagan did, of the unique role we play.
Neither they nor we should ever forget that we are, in fact, exceptional. Proponents of American exceptionalism argue that the United States be exceptional in that it was founded on a set of republican ideals, rather than on a common heritage, ethnicity, or ruling elite.
In the formulation of President Abraham Lincoln in his Gettysburg AddressAmerica is exceptionnalism nation “conceived in liberty, and dedicated exceptionalsim the proposition that all men are created equal”. In Lincoln’s interpretation, America is inextricably connected with freedom exceptiona,ism equality, and in world perspective, the American mission is to ensure, “that government of the people, by the people, for the people, shall not perish from the earth.
Harry Williams argues that Lincoln believed:. American policies have been characterized since their inception by a system of federalism between the states and the federal government and checks and balances among the legislative, executive and judicial brancheswhich were designed to prevent any faction, region, or government organ from becoming too powerful.
Some proponents of the theory of American exceptionalism argue that this system and the accompanying distrust of concentrated power prevent the United States from suffering a ” tyranny of the majority “, are preservative of a free republican democracy, and also that it allows citizens to live in a locality whose laws reflect those voters’ values. A consequence of this political system is that amercian can vary widely across the country.
Critics of American exceptionalism maintain that this system merely replaces the power of the national majority over states with power by the states over local entities.
On balance, the American political system arguably allows for more local dominance but prevents more domestic dominance than does a more unitary system. Historian Eric Foner has explored the question of birthright citizenship, the provision of the Fourteenth Amendment that makes every baby born in the United States a full citizen.
Yale Law School Dean Harold Hongju Koh has identified what he says is “the most important respect in which the United States has been genuinely exceptional, about international affairs, international law, and promotion of human rights: To this day, the United States remains the only superpower capable, and at times willing, to commit real resources and make real sacrifices to build, sustain, and drive an international system committed to international law, democracy, and the promotion of human rights.
Experience teaches that when the United States leads on human rights, from Nuremberg to Kosovo, other countries follow. Peggy Noonanan American political pundit, wrote in The Wall Street Journal that lipsft is not exceptional because it has long attempted to be a force for good in the world, it tries to be a force for good because it is exceptional”.
Vice President Dick Cheney explores the concept of United States global leadership in a book on American foreign policy entitled Exceptional: Proponents of American exceptionalism often excepfionalism that many features of the “American spirit” were shaped by the frontier process following Frederick Jackson Turner ‘s Frontier Thesis.
They argue the American frontier allowed individualism to flourish as pioneers adopted aerican and equality and shed centuries-old European institutions such as royalty, standing armies, established churches and a landed aristocracy that owned most of the land. Other nations had frontiers, but it did not shape them nearly as much as the American frontier did, usually because it was under the control of a strong national government.
South Africa, Russia, Brazil, Argentina, Canada and Australia had long frontiers, but they did not have “free land” and excptionalism control. Their edge did not shape their national psyches.
In Australia, “mateship” and working together was valued more than individualism was in the United States. For most of its history, especially from the midth to early 20th centuries, the United States has been known as the “land of opportunity”, and in this sense, it prided and promoted itself on providing individuals with the opportunity to escape from the contexts of their class and family background.
However, social mobility in the U. American men born into the lowest income quintile are much more likely to stay there compared to similar people in the Nordic countries or the United Kingdom.
Gregory Mankiwhowever, state that the discrepancy has little to do with class rigidity; rather, it is a reflection of income disparity: Regarding public welfare, Richard Rose asked in whether the evidence shows whether the U.
Scholars have been polarized on the topic, according to Michael Kammen with historians generally against it, while empirical social scientists have tended to be supporters.
Kammen reports that historians Lawrence Veysey, C. HuntingtonMona Harrington, John P. Kammen argues that the hostile attacks began in the s in the wake of the Vietnam War, when many intellectuals decided, “The American Adam had lost his innocence and given way to a helpless, tarnished Gulliver. By the s, labor historians were emphasizing that the failure of a work party to emerge in the United States did not mean that America was exceptionally favorable grounds for workers.
By the late s, other academic critics started mocking the extreme chauvinism displayed by the modern usage of exceptionalism. Finally mids, colonial historians downplayed the uniqueness of the American experience in the context of British history.