Serambi Ilmu Semesta. 2. Manshur, F. M. () Fakultas Adab dan Ilmu Budaya UIN Sunan Kalijaga, Indonesia. 5. Tohe Ilmu Arudh dan Qawafi. Surabaya. Soal PAT Genap Ilmu Arudh Kls – Download as Word Doc .doc /.docx) , PDF File .pdf), Text File .txt) or read online. Phone, Suggest a phone number Nahwu, Shorof, Balaghoh, Ilmu Arudh Dan Ilmu Falak. 6 likes. Nahwu, Shorof, Balaghoh, Ilmu Arudh Dan Ilmu Falak.

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I had the opportunity to capture this wonderful event at the National Planetarium Kuala Lumpur, after the Kusuf Solar Eclipse prayer has been completed at the nearby National Mosque. The sky started to become cloudy just after the maximum eclipse, and it was a blessing for me as I didn’t bring any filter but half of the crowd went home because of the weather. This was the first shot taken and it was my best that day. Had it a clear sunny day, ilm shot would be clearly overexposed.

Shi’a Muslims, though a minority in the Muslim world, constitute the majority of the populations in Iran, Azerbaijan, Bahrain and Iraq, as well as a plurality in Lebanon. The Shi’a attribute themselves to the Qur’an and teachings of the final Prophet of Islam, Muhammad, and in contrast to other Muslims, believe that his family, the Ahl al-Bayt the People of the Houseincluding his descendants known as Imams, have special spiritual and political rule over the community.

The Shi’a faith is vast ilnu inclusive of many different groups. There are various Ilmk theological beliefs, schools of jurisprudence, philosophical beliefs, and spiritual movements. Shi’a Islam embodies a completely independent system of religious interpretation and political authority in the Muslim world. The Shi’a identity emerged soon after the death of Muhammad, and Shi’a theology was formulated in the second century[3] and the first Shi’a governments and societies were established by the end of the third century.

Shi’a Islam is divided into three branches. The term Shi’a ilmk refers to Twelver Shi’a only. Other smaller branches include the Ismaili and Zaidi, who dispute the Twelver lineage of Imams and beliefs.

It has been used in Qur’an in singular or plural forms with both positive[Qur’an Both Shia and Sunni sources trace the term to the years preceding ilmk death of Muhammad; see Shia etymology.

Shi’a Muslims, though aarudh minority in the Arufh world, constitute the majority of the populations in Iran, Azerbaijan, Bahrain and Iraq. The Shi’a presence is negligible elsewhere in Southeast Asia, where Muslims are predominantly Shafi’i Sunnis, though there are almost a million Shi’a Muslims in Indonesia, mainly converts.

A significant iilmu Shia minority is present in Ipmu, centered around the state of Kano see Shia in Nigeria. East Africa holds several populations of Ismaili Shia, primarily descendants of immigrants from South Asia during the colonial period, such as the Khoja. According to the Shia, one of the lingering problems in estimating the Shia population is that unless the Shia form a significant minority in a Muslim country, the entire population is often listed as Sunni.

The reverse, however, has not held true, which may contribute to imprecise estimates of the size of each sect.

For example, the rise of the House of Saud in Arabia brought official discrimination against Shia [11]. Shia Muslims believe that the descendants from Muhammad through his daughter Fatimah Zahra and his son-in-law Ali the Imams were the best source of knowledge about the Qur’an and Islam, the most trusted carriers and protectors of Muhammad’s Sunnah arjdhand the most worthy of emulation. In particular, Shia Muslims recognize the succession of Ali Muhammad’s cousin, son-in-law, the first man to accept Islam — second only to Muhammad’s wife Khadija — the male head of the Ahl al-Bayt or “people of the [Prophet’s] house” and the father of Muhammad’s only bloodline as opposed to that of the caliphate recognized by Sunni Muslims.

Shia Muslims believe that Ali was appointed successor by Muhammad’s direct order on many occasions, and that he is therefore the rightful leader of the Muslim faith.

This difference between following either the Ahl al-Bayt Muhammad’s family and descendants or the Caliph Abu Bakr has shaped Shia and non-Shia views on some of the Qur’an, the Hadith narrations from Muhammad and other areas of Islam. For instance, the collection of Hadith venerated by Shia Muslims is centered on narrations by members of the Ahl al-Bayt and their supporters, while some Hadith by narrators not belonging to or supporting the Ahl al-Bayt are not included those of Abu Huraira, for example.

According to the Sunnis, Ali was the third successor to Abu Bakr however, the Shia maintain that Ali was the first divinely sanctioned “Imam,” or successor of Muhammad.

The seminal event in Shia history is the martyrdom in CE at the Battle of Karbala of Ali’s son Hussein, who led an non-allegiance movement against the defiant caliph 71 of Hussein’s followers were killed as well. Hussein came to symbolize resistance to tyranny. Regardless of the dispute about the Caliphate, the Shia recognize the religious authority of the Illmu.


There are two interpretations about the emergence of Shia. One of them emphasizes the political struggle about the succession of Muhammad after his death and especially during the First Fitna. Hossein Nasr has quoted:. Shi’ism was not brought into existence only by the question of the political succession to Muhammad as so many Western works claim although this question was of course of great importance.

The problem of political succession may be said to be the element that arjdh the Shi’ites into a distinct arjdh, and political ilmh in later periods, especially the martyrdom of Imam Husayn-upon whom be peace-only accentuated this tendency of the Shi’ites to see themselves as a separate community within the Islamic world.

The principal cause of the coming into being of Shi’ism, however, lies in the fact that this possibility existed within the Islamic revelation itself and so had to be realized. Inasmuch as there were exoteric [Zaheri] and esoteric [Bateni] interpretations from the very beginning, from which developed the schools madhhab of the Sharia and Sufism in the Sunni world, there also had to be an interpretation of Islam which would ilum these elements in a single whole.

This possibility was realized arudb Shi’ism, for which the Imam is the person in whom these two aspects of traditional authority are united and in whom the religious life is marked by a sense of tragedy and martyrdom Hence the question arud arose was not so much who should be the successor of Muhammad as what the function and qualifications of such a person would be.

Its origin is in the Hadith of the Event of the Cloak and the Hadith of Mubahala, hadith which are both accepted as authentic by Sunni and Shi’a Muslims, with differences only in interpretation. It is one of the foundations of the Shi’a conception of Imamate, which arudg that a male descendant of Muhammad has special rule over the Muslim community.

The three branches of Shi’a differ on the nature of the Ahl al-Kisa and Imams. The two largest branches, the Twelver and the Ismaili, consider them to be in a state of ismah, meaning infallibility, a belief originating from the verse of purification in the Muslim holy book, the Qur’an.

An error occurred.

In contrast, the third branch, the Zaidi, view them only as political figures ilnu the duty to lead revolts against corrupt rulers and governments. Those among Muhammad’s companions who were closest to Ali and did not swear allegiance to Abu Bakr were called Shiat Ali arudn Muhammad’s lifetime.

The Ahlul Bayt are viewed as the perfect example for mankind, and like the prophets, should be emulated in acts and deeds. Twelver and Ismaili Shi’a believe that the Imams of Ahlul Bayt carry the divinely appointed responsibility of protecting Islam and enacting the example of the pure Sunnah of Muhammad. The Imams of Ahlul Bayt have guided Muslims throughout history, in many cases under the most horrible circumstances and under the most severe forms of discrimination due to the cruel policies of the reigning governments of the time.

They are seen as incorruptible and infallible ilmh models for Muslims that have shown the way of goodness and prosperity in this world and the next in the best way until their martyrdom or Occultation.

In contrast to the Twelver and Ismaili, the Limu only see the Imams as political figures who are descendants of Ali and Fatimah who uprise against corrupt and oppressing rulers and governments.

The Occultation in Shi’a Islam refers to a belief that the messianic figure, the Mahdi, is an Imam who has disappeared and will one day return and fill the world with justice. The groups which do believe in it differ upon which lineage of imamate is correct, and therefore which individual has gone into the Occultation. The Shi’a faith throughout its history split over the issue of imamate, with each branch arush different imams.

The only other surviving branches are the Zaidi and Ismaili.

Ilmu Arudh – BAHAR MUTAQORIB by MAHDY SAKRON | Free Listening on SoundCloud

All three groups follow a different line of Imamate. Twelver Shi’a believe in the lineage of the Twelve Imams. The Twelver Shi’a faith is predominantly found in Iran est. The Zaidi dispute the succession of the fifth Twelver Imam, Muhammad al-Baqir, because he did not stage a revolution against the corrupt government, unlike Zaid ibn Ali. They do not believe in a normal lineage, but rather that any descendant of Hasan ibn Ali or Husayn ibn Ardh who stages a revolution against a corrupt government is an imam.

The Zaidi are mainly ilmk in Yemen. The Ismaili dispute the succession of the seventh Twelver Imam, Musa al-Kadhim, believing his older brother Ismail bin Jafar actually succeeded their father Jafar al-Sadiq, and did not predecease him like Twelver Shi’a believe. An adherent of Twelver Shi’ism is most commonly referred to as a Twelver, which is derived from their belief in twelve divinely ordained leaders, or Imams.

The Prophet and Imams’ words and deeds are a guide and model for the community to follow; as a result, they must be free from error and sin, and must be chosen by divine decree, or nass, through the Prophet.


It is believed in Shi’ism that Aql, a divine wisdom, was the source of the souls of the Prophets and Imams and gave them esoteric knowledge, called Hikmah, and that their sufferings were a means of divine grace to their devotees.

Because God would not leave the world without some sort of divine guidance for humanity. There is always an Imam of the Age, who is the divinely appointed authority on all matters of faith and law in the Muslim community. Ali was the first Imam of this line, and in the Twelvers’ view, the rightful successor to the Prophet of Islam, followed by male descendants of Muhammad through his daughter Fatimah Zahra. Each Imam was the son of arud previous Imam, with the exception of Husayn ibn Ali, who was the brother of Hasan ibn Ali.

God has appointed perfect and infallible prophets and messengers to teach mankind the religion that is, a perfect system of how to live in “peace” or “submission to God”.

Prophets are Messengers which are appointed by Allah to bring the message of God to people and spread that message while the Imam leader is appointed by Allah to protect that message since ordinary people will fail to do so. Also, as Muhammad was the last messenger of God which means the message he brought was the last arudu final message to the people arudg Allah, none is supposed to bring a message from Allah after Muhammed, therefore, if people were left with the message alone, the true message could not survive long and would have undergone changes.

Imams were therefore appointed to take care of the message and prevent people from going astray after the last prophet. God has appointed specific leaders to lead and guide mankind — a prophet appoints a custodian of the arudg before his demise.

Shi’a Muslims believe in Twelve Imams, eleven of whom were killed, but they believe their twelfth Imam is still alive. Their history says that he disappeared after performing rituals of the eleventh Imam’s his father’s death. He is still under ‘ghaybat’ or ‘occultation’ and arudb appear on the face of the earth to raise the truth and bring an end to tyranny and oppression. Qiyamah The Day of Judgment: After the annihilation of this world, God will raise mankind for Judgement.

According to Shia Twelvers doctrine, what is referred to as pillars by Sunni Islam are called the practices or secondary principles Firoo e Din. There are three additional practices. The first is jihad, which is also important to the Sunni, but not considered a pillar.

The third is Nahi-Anil-Munkar, the “Exhortation to Desist from Evil”, which tells Muslims to refrain from vice and from evil actions and to encourage others to do the same. Sawm Fast — fasting during the Islamic holy lunar month of Ramadhan Able to eat while the sun is hidden.

Jihad Struggle — struggling to please the Almighty. The greater, or internal Jihad is the struggle against the evil within one’s soul in every aspect of life. The lesser, or external, Jihad is the struggle against the evil of one’s environment in every aspect of life.

This is not to be mistaken with the common modern misconception that this means “Holy War”. Writing the truth jihad bil qalam and speaking truth in front of an oppressor are arydh forms of Jihad. Ja’fari jurisprudence or Ja’fari Fiqh is the name of the jurisprudence of the Twelver Muslims, derived from the name of Ja’far al-Sadiq, the 6th Shia Imam.

The Ja’fari Shia consider Sunnah to be the oral traditions of Muhammad and their implementation and interpretation by the Imams who were all scholars and descendants of Muhammad through aruxh daughter Fatima and her husband, the first Imam, Ali. Twelver Shi’a Muslims believe that the study of Islamic literature is a continual process, and is necessary for identifying all of God’s laws.

Sunni Muslims also believe ilu they can interpret the Qur’an and hadith with the same authority as their predecessors – that the door to ijtihad was never closed.

However, the opinion of the 1st and 2nd century 7th and xrudh century Gregorian calendar scholars are given greater weight. Traditionally Twelver Shi’a Muslims consider Ali ibn Abi Talib and the other 11 imams not ilmj religious guides but political leaders, based on a crucial hadith where the Prophet Muhammad passes on his power to command Muslims to Ali.

Since the last Imam, Muhammad al-Mahdi, went into “occultation” in AD and is not expected back until end times, this left Shi’a without religiously sanctioned governance.

In contrast, the Ismaili Imams did successfully gain political power with the shortly lived Fatimid Empire. After the fall of the Fatimid Empire Ismaili Shi’asm started to lean towards secular thought. The first Shia regime, the Safavid dynasty in Iran, propagated arurh Twelver faith, made Twelver law the law of the land, and patronized Twelver scholarship.