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It appears that some chil- dren respond better to animal stimuli, and some to human figures, depending on particular characteristics of the child. It is hoped this version will be useful with older children, especially those with an M.
The human CAT may also elicit more information from children with particular personality characteristics. C A T – HI T h e development of the original Childrens Apperception Test CAT prior to was based on a number of propositions, among them to pro- vide a projective test likely to pro- duce themes relevant funcines the person- ality of young children.
Secondarily, animal figures were chosen on the basis of expectations derived funcciones clinical work that young children would identify more readily with ani- mal figures than with human figures and that animal figures would more easily elicit idiographic material. Fables, fairy tales, the high animal per cent in childrens Rorschachs, the frequency of animal phobias in bllak dren, the role of animals in primitive cultures, identification with animals in childrens play, the popularity of animals in T V shows Flipper, Lassie, etc.
It was reasoned that animal figures would increase the extent to which attribu- tion of sex and age to story characters would be based on motivational fac- tors in the child rather funviones upon card pull perceptual factors, thus providing valuable information re- lated to the childs underlying atti- tudes toward important adult figures. I n constructing the CAT, there was an attempt to yoiacs scenes which would elicit material relevant to im- portant situations and problems in the childs life feeding, rivalry, ag- gression, loneliness, interactions with parental figures, fknciones.
A further card pull for these important problem areas was created by the use of back- ground props, i. During the last fifteen years, a num- ber of studies have focused on a com- parison of the relative merits of ani- mal vs. While this is a legitimate and important problem, it became the major concern in CAT research, probably to the detriment of other important issues, such as longi- tudinal studies of children and signifi- cant pathognomonic differences.
In addressing yoidas to the animal – human stimulus issue, some workers seemed to assume erroneously that the animal characters were what the CAT was meant to stand on or fall.
Literature suruey Studies relevant to the use of ani- mal as opposed to human figures have most recently been reviewed by Bellak and Adelmanby Mursteinand by Yoiccas Prior to the construction of the CAT; Bender and Woltmann ar- ranged the themes of therapeutically oriented puppet shows on the assump- tion that children, like primitives, Downloaded by [ECU Libraries] at Bender and Rapaport 1 had found animal drawings ylicas 7 to 13 goicas old disturbed children helpful in bellam central person- ality conflict areas.
And in the con- struction of the Blacky pictures, Blum and Hunt state that animal figures were chosen over humans to add funcinoes measure of ambiguity to the highly structured situations being de- picted, with the intent of facilitating personal ex ression and decreasing re- An early comparison of T A T cards with animal pictures was reported by Billsfor 48 male and female school children ages five through ten.
He found significantly longer stories to the ten animal rabbit pictures, with less card rejections 18 to Iand concluded that the Ss more easily for- mulated stories to the animal figures. A methodological limitation of this study and the one by Bills et al. Subjects were four girls and four boys from third grade, and stories to both T A T and yoicqs pictures were compared with non-directive play therapy inter- views. Correlations between T A T and animal pictures for 26 of Murrays manifest needs ranged from.
The authors concluded that animal pictures appear to be as valid and useful as the T A T and easier for children in formulating stories than the TAT.
PSICOTERAPIA BREVE by ana villamil on Prezi
Biersdorf and Marcuse ad- dressed themselves to the animal vs. For 30 first-grade pupils of both sexes, no significant dif- ferences were found on 7 response roductivity measures, including num- ger of words, ideas, characters men- tioned, characters introduced, and re- sponse time indeces. I n a second study, Mainord and Marcuse em- ployed the identical stimulus pictures, but this time- with a group of 28 emotionally disturbed children of both sexes 21 boys, 7 girlsaged five years, four months to eight years, five months.
Again, no significant differ- ences were obtained on the response productivity measures. However, five clinicians asked to rate the stories for their belpak usefulness amount of personal structure and dynamics re- vealed about the child favored the human set to a statistically significant degree p.
T yolcas e same year Bellka reported a study comparing 60 school funcionrs ten boys and ten girls from first, second, and third grades on five CAT cards 1, 2, 4, 8, and 10 and on a duplicate set yoicad pictures with human figures, which the author states were ambiguous as to sex. Mean Stan- ford-Binet I.
Com- parison between groups was made on length of protocol, number of nouns, verbs, ego words, transcendence scores and reaction time. Significant differ- ences in Transcendence Index scores were found i. No differences in any other response measures were attribut- able to the animal-human figure vari- able.
Light designed a study to compare the T A T and CAT on more dynamic aspects of story content than on reaction time, story length, and other similar measures, which he felt were not valid indicators of identifica- tion. Subjects were 74 fourth and fifth graders, aged nine to ten years, six Downloaded by [ECU Libraries] at With five T A T and five CAT cards presented in a group set- ting, all of the response measures amount and kinds of feelings, themes, conflicts, and definite out- comes were significantly higher for the stories to the TAT.
Boyd and Funcioesnoting contradictory findings in the previous- ly published literature, attempted a more extensive evaluation than previ- ous workers. Subjects 96 third grad- ers of mean age eight years, five mths, and mean Kuhlman I. The main variables were a type of stimulus story animal or human char- actersb content of stimulus story central figure engages in socially a p proved or socially disapproved be- haviorand c type of stimulus pic- ture animal or human figures.
The stimulus pictures each funcionrs an animal or a human version showed the main character from the stimulus stories in belllak ambiguous action. The response indices were story length, presence of original ideas, value judg- ments] punishment, reward, and new themes, occurrence of the pronoun I, and the extent of formal features gellak of words used for the be- ginning and conclusion of the story. Concerning the stimulus pictures, the animal figures were found to elicit more personal involvement than the pictures with human figures.
Animal pictures had a significantly higher A Human Modification of the C A T number of original ideas and begin- nings and endings and belalk higher on four of ykicas remaining six response measures, though short of statistical significance. The animal cards were found especially to elicit negative feelings, and the authors concluded that socially disapproved behavior seems to arouse more anxiety when originated by human than by animal figures.
Furuya tested 7. He found significantly more definite out- comes and more expression of feelings and of significant conflict in the stories to the human set. Bellak and Adel- man have pointed out that the human figure cards used by Mar- cuse et al.
Thus, while their studies show su- periority of human figures on the pro- ductivity measures, the decrease of funcione from animal to human fig- ures would appear to ffunciones the range of response choice, and in this im- portant sense decrease the value of the human as compared to the ani- mal figures. In this regard, one can question the representativeness of the clinicians preference for human over animal figures in the Mainord and Marcuse work, but replication studies are needed to clarify the issue.
Simson also compared the CAT with human figures. Subjects were 28 second-graders, 14 of whom were administered the animal version first, and the human version two weeks later, and the reverse order for the other He found the human pictures to be associated with shorter reaction time, longer stories, faster verbalization and more story themes, With the intention of providing a more crucial test of the hypothesis that young children more readily identify with animals, Budoff Downloaded by [ECU Libraries] at HURVICH 23 1 chose four year old nursery schoolers rather than the relatively older chil- dren used in previous experiments.
Eighteen subjects with Sanford-Binet I. Re- sponse mewn-es were productivity number of words spokenstory level presence of object naming. Results showed no statistically sig- nificant differences between picture sets on the three response measures except one, attributable to chance because of the number of com arisons though not statistically significant, was for higher scores to the human figures on both story level and Trans- cendence Index, the latter being low or both groups.
While he questions the superiority of the animal CAT over human figures in comparable situations, the author states that his findings fail to solve the problem of whether young children more easily identify with animals. Among other suggestions, Budoff conjectures that where responses to human figures are particularly threatening, animal fig- ures might elicit more productive stories due to the increase of psycho- loEical distance as Blum and Hunt [I have suggested in another context.
The most recent study comparing animal and human figures is that of Weisskopf-Joelson, and Foster These authors, interested in the ques- tion of what kinds of pictures elicit the greatest amount of projection, created four sets of four CAT cards 3,4,9, and T h e versions were as follows: An attempt was made to keep all aspects of the four stimulus sets con- made. T h e overall trend of t g e data, stant except for the substitution of human for animal figures and color for black and white.
T h e original CAT cards were consequently modi- fied; animals were clothed, the mouse was omitted from the seated lion pic- ture CAT card 3and the kan- garoo in CAT card 4 was changed to carry the offspring in her arm rather than in her pouch. T h e subjects were 40 kindergarten children, ages five and one-half to seven, with a mean age of six years, two months. A Graeco-Latin square design was used, such that each sub- ject received four stimulus cards, in- cluding one each of the four sets cor- responding to CAT cards 3, 4, 9, and loand each one being from a different experimental version AN, AC, HN, HC.
T h e dependent vari- able was story productivity as meas- ured by the Weisskopf Trans- cendence Index. When the 11 highest Transcend- ence Index scorers were compared with the 11 lowest, a trend not reach- ing statistical significance was noted for the high scorers to show greater productivity when responding to chromatic pictures, and for the low scorers to be more productive when responding to the animal pictures. As the authors point out, subjects who score relatively high on the Tran- scendence Index are freer to develop and express fantasies than are low scoring subjects, the latter being more inhibited in this regard.
Among the studies reviewed, those of Budoff and especially of Weisskopf- Joelson and Foster suggest that some children do better with animal stim- uli, and some with human ones, and that these preferences may be associ- ated with specific personality vari- ables: Future exploration of relative preferences of some personality types, the relationship of defensive patterns, age, and I. Another important reason for pro- viding a human equivalent to the CAT was that some children between seven and ten, especially those with high I.
While many found them childish for purely defensive reasons, it was nevertheless felt that a human version would lend itself especially well to an upward extension of the usefulness of the CAT and go further towards closing an age gap between the ap- plicability of the CAT and the T A T. The Human Modifications I n T h e Pictures The changing of the animal figures to human figures resented a number process highlighted many of the ad- vantages of the original choice of animals with regard to figures which were rather ambiguous as to age, sex, and many cultural attributes.
Three different artists tried their skill in portraying the nature of the regular CAT in human form, follow- ing the instruction of Leo old Bellak pictures in the CAT presented vary- ing degrees of difficulty in that respect.
In picture one, for instance, the adult on the left was clothed in a of difficult prob P ems. In fact, this and Sonya Sore1 Bellak. T R e different ductive with the animal figures, the authors then reason, could be due to their finding it easier to reveal them- selves under the pretense that they are telling about animals instead of humans. The general consideration suggested here is that personality dif- ferences of subjects can be associated with greater productivity to animal or to human pictures, depending on the particular personality configuration.
A review of the literature thus re- veals that for the conditions evalu- ated, some outcomes favor the animal figures, and an even greater number of studies favor the human figures see Table I. Of the various factors likely responsible for the conflicting results, there is variation among the studies in stimulus cards employed and in outcome measures utilized.
Funciones yoicas by Edward Müller Dirlewanger on Prezi
Few investigators maintained the am- biguity of age or sex in the human drawings that is inherent in the ani- mal figures. With regard to outcome measures, dynamic evaluation as compared to word counts, theme counts, etc.
In addi- tion, subjects varied among the studies with regard to age, intelli- funcionew, and degree ufnciones kind of psycho- pathology. It is likely that the stimu- lus value of animals gradually de- creases between ages seven and ten, especially if the mental age is higher than the chronological age.
An ade- quate comparison of the utility of the two kinds of figures would require studies which control for and systema- tically sample from among the above variables and which emplo the same outcome funiones, inclucling some dynamic and clinically relevant in- dices.
Especially sparse are studies employing disturbed children, a point emphasized by Murstein Transcendence No difference parable human set. The hairstyle and facial expression can be described as not necessarily of one sex or the other. The same can be said for the children’s figures.
However, the child was drawn with a somewhat mischievous facial expres- sion, and such a figure might still elicit stories of a similar nature; such as giving help to a man who needs a cane to walk, or by the subject inter- preting the shadow near the left knee as an object suitable for mischief. Picture four presented relatively few problems except for the absence of tails, of course, and yoicad fact yoicax an infant in arms is not fujciones the same as an infant in the maternal pouch, alas.
Picture five, with its anthropomor- phic situation in the original, present- ed little difficulty.