Hyperemesis gravidarum (HG) is a pregnancy complication that is characterized by severe .. Hyperemesis gravidarum is from the Greek hyper-, meaning excessive, and emesis, meaning vomiting, and the Latin gravidarum, the feminine. Download Citation on ResearchGate | On Mar 1, , N. González-Alonso and others published Emesis e hiperemesis gravídica }. Download Citation on ResearchGate | On Dec 31, , J. Lombardía Prieto and others published Emesis e hiperemesis gravídica }.
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Hyperemesis gravidarum HG is a pregnancy complication that is characterized by severe nauseavomitingweight lossand possibly dehydration. The exact causes of hyperemesis gravidarum are fravidica. Treatment includes drinking fluids and a bland diet. While vomiting in pregnancy has been described as early as 2, BC, the first clear medical description of hyperemesis gravidarum was in by Antoine Dubois. When vomiting is severe, it may result in the following: Symptoms can be aggravated by hungerfatigueprenatal vitamins especially those containing ironand diet.
Excessive salivation, also known as sialorrhea gravidarumis another symptom experienced by some women. Hyperemesis gravidarum tends to occur in the first trimester of pregnancy  and lasts significantly longer than morning sickness. While most women will experience near-complete relief of morning sickness symptoms near the beginning of their second trimestersome sufferers of HG will experience severe symptoms until they give birth to their baby, and sometimes even after giving birth.
A small percentage rarely vomit, but the nausea still causes most if not all of the same issues that hyperemesis with vomiting does. There are numerous theories regarding the cause of HG, but the cause remains controversial. It is thought that HG is due to a combination of factors which may vary between women and include genetics.
Possible pathophysiological processes involved are summarized in the following table: Hyperemesis gravidarum is considered a graviica of exclusion. Women experiencing hyperemesis gravidarum often are dehydrated and lose weight despite efforts to eat. Diagnoses to be ruled out include the following: Grabidica investigations include blood urea nitrogen BUN and electrolytes, liver function testsurinalysis and thyroid function tests.
Hematological investigations include hematocrit levels, which are usually raised in HG. Dry bland food and oral rehydration are first-line treatments. If conservative dietary measures fail, more extensive treatment such as the use of antiemetic medications and intravenous rehydration may be required. If oral nutrition is insufficient, intravenous nutritional support may be needed.
Intravenous IV hydration often includes supplementation of electrolytes as persistent vomiting frequently leads to a deficiency. Likewise, supplementation for lost thiamine Vitamin B 1 must be considered to reduce the risk of Wernicke’s encephalopathy. In addition, electrolyte levels should be monitored and supplemented; of particular concern are sodium and potassium. After IV rehydration is completed, patients typically begin to tolerate frequent small liquid or bland meals.
After rehydration, treatment focuses on managing symptoms to allow normal intake of food. However, cycles of gravldica and dehydration can occur, making continuing care necessary.
Home care is available in the form of a peripherally-inserted central catheter PICC line for hydration and nutrition. A number of antiemetics are effective and safe in pregnancy including: Ondansetron may be beneficial, however, there are some concerns regarding an association with cleft palate and there is little high-quality data.
Women not responding to IV rehydration and medication may require nutritional support. Patients might receive parenteral nutrition intravenous feeding via a PICC line or enteral nutrition via a nasogastric tube or a nasojejunal tube. There is only limited evidence from trials to support the use of vitamin B 6 to improve outcome. Acupuncture both with P6 and traditional method has been gravidoca to be ineffective.
If HG is inadequately treated, anemia hyponatremia Wernicke’s encephalopathy kidney failurecentral pontine myelinolysiscoagulopathyatrophyMallory-Weiss tears hypoglycemiajaundicemalnutritionpneumomediastinumrhabdomyolysisdeconditioningdeep vein thrombosispulmonary embolismsplenic avulsion, or vasospasms of cerebral arteries are possible consequences. Depression and post-traumatic stress disorder  are common secondary complications of HG and emotional emessis can be beneficial.
The effects of HG on the fetus are mainly due to electrolyte imbalances caused by HG in gravidicca mother. Thalidomide was prescribed for treatment of HG in Europe until emmesis was recognized that thalidomide gravidicx teratogenic and is a cause of phocomelia in neonates. Hyperemesis gravidarum is from the Greek hyper-meaning excessive, and emesismeaning vomitingand the Latin gravidarumthe feminine genitive plural form of an adjective, here used as a noun, meaning “pregnant [woman]”.
Therefore, hyperemesis gravidarum means “excessive vomiting of pregnant women”. She died in while four months pregnant, having been afflicted by intractable nausea and vomiting throughout her pregnancy, and was unable to tolerate food or even water. Catherine, Duchess of Gravidicaa was hospitalised due to hyperemesis gravidarum during her first pregnancy, and was treated for a similar condition during the subsequent two. From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia.
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Acute fatty liver of pregnancy Gestational diabetes Hepatitis E Hyperemesis gravidarum Intrahepatic cholestasis of pregnancy.
Gestational pemphigoid Impetigo herpetiformis Intrahepatic cholestasis of pregnancy Linea nigra Prurigo gestationis Pruritic folliculitis of pregnancy Pruritic urticarial papules and emesks of pregnancy PUPPP Striae gravidarum. Gestational thrombocytopenia Pregnancy-induced hypercoagulability. Amniotic fluid embolism Cephalopelvic disproportion Dystocia Shoulder dystocia Fetal distress Locked twins Obstetrical bleeding Postpartum Pain management during childbirth placenta Placenta accreta Preterm birth Postmature birth Umbilical cord prolapse Uterine inversion Uterine rupture Vasa praevia.
Breastfeeding difficulties Low milk supply Cracked nipples Breast engorgement Childbirth-related posttraumatic stress disorder Diastasis symphysis pubis Postpartum bleeding Peripartum cardiomyopathy Postpartum depression Postpartum psychosis Postpartum thyroiditis Puerperal fever Puerperal mastitis.
Emesis e hiperemesis gravídica by ARMANDO MORENO SANTILLAN on Prezi
Nausea and vomiting such that weight loss and dehydration occur . Often gets better but may last entire pregnancy .
First pregnancy, multiple pregnancyobesity, prior or family history of hyperemesis gravidarum, trophoblastic disorderhistory of an eating disorder  . Based on symptoms . Urinary tract infectionhigh gravdica levels . Drinking fluids, bland diet, intravenous fluids . Pyridoxinemetoclopramide .
Distention of the gastrointestinal tract Crossover with TSHcausing gestational thyrotoxicosis .