The third of the three daily prayers, called the maariv (or arvit) prayer, is recited after dark (the first two are recited in the morning and afternoon). This prayer was . ARVIT (Heb. עַרְבִית; “evening” prayer), one of the three regular daily services. The popular name Ma’ariv (going back at least to the 16th century) is derived. Maariv: Night Prayer – Ashkenaz. וְהוּא רַחוּם יְכַפֵּר עָון וְלא יַשְׁחִית. וְהִרְבָּה לְהָשִׁיב אַפּו וְלא יָעִיר כָּל חֲמָתו: ה’ הושִׁיעָה. הַמֶּלֶךְ יַעֲנֵנוּ.
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Arivt recital was originally regarded as optional Ber. Joshua against the view of Gamaliel II since the evening service did not correspond to any set Temple sacrifice unlike the morning and afternoon services.
Tradition attributed the institution of Arvit to the patriarch Jacob based on Gen. In the Talmud, opinions differ as to whether a third daily prayer is obligatory or optional but Psalms In common with the other services, its recital is the duty of the individual even outside the synagogue and congregational service. When Arvit is said after nightfall, the service generally opens with Psalms On weekdays prajer service opens with Psalms According to the Mishnah the reading of the Shema prayfr obligatory at nighttime.
This was based on the biblical phrase “when thou liest down” Deut.
The theme of the first of the two blessings preceding the Shema is the incidence of evening and night. The rpayer blessing is a thanksgiving for the love shown by God for Israel by revealing His Torah to arrvit. The blessing which follows the Shema is a Ge’ullah prayer, praising God as Redeemer from Egyptian slavery in particular.
The two blessings preceding the Shema and the one following it thus follow the pattern established in the morning prayer.
They are followed by a night prayer Hashkivenu “Grant us to lie down in arivtimploring God’s protection from a variety of dangers and mishaps. The final blessing existed in two versions, one Arivt and one Palestinian. In the latter a prayer for peace and Zion-Jerusalem ha-pores sukkat shalom ; “who spreads the tabernacle of peace” replaces the more general formula shomer ammo Yisrael la-ad ; “who guards His people Israel forever”.
The Babylonian version is now used on weekdays; the Pryer on Sabbaths and festivals. According to the Ashkenazi rite, a group of scriptural verses beginning with Psalms Later, an additional night prayer barukh Adonai ba-yom ; “blessed be the Lord by day” and a benediction expressing messianic hopes yiru einenu ; “may our eyes behold” were attached to this. The Amidah is then read silently. This is the service to which the Mishnah and Talmud refer when they speak of tefillat ha-erev or tefillat arvit Ber.
Arvit eventually came to be considered as a statutory prayer, though in token of its optional character, the Amidah is not repeated by the reader even in congregational prayer; further blessings could intervene between it, and the Ge’ullah blessing cf. The Amidah is followed by the full Kaddish.
Maariv: Night Prayer – Ashkenaz
The evening service on Sabbaths and festivals differs in some details. The custom to follow Hashkivenu with Exodus These latter consist of biblical and talmudical passages of varying length and are not recited in all rites.
At the conclusion of pdayer Sabbath it is the general custom to preface the Arvit with the chanting of Psalms and Ideally, Arvit should be recited after nightfall and before dawn. Elbogen, Gottesdienst, 99—, —12; Idelsohn, Liturgy, —21, —4; Abrahams, Companion, cvii—cxviii, cxxix—cxxxix; E.
Maariv – Wikipedia
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Maariv: Weekday Night Prayer – Ashkenaz
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