is a place to share and follow research. For Argan, the crisis in contemporary Italian sculpture derived from .. Argan, G. C. “Arte Moderna in Inghilterra: Henry Moore” (Modern Art in. Argan, Giulio Carlo, L’Arte Moderno , Sansoni, Firenze. Argan, G. C., Arte e Crítica de Arte, ed. portuguesa Estampa, Lisboa.
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British sculpture gained an international reputation thanks to the exposure it was given at the Venice Biennale from toand proved capable of influencing sculptural developments throughout the s. This essay will examine various aspects of the crucial impact it made on Italian sculpture, at a time when this had fallen badly behind the international field. Inthe critic Giulio Carlo Argan asserted that Henry Moore was the most important sculptor in Europe, above all for his exquisitely English capacity for not shutting himself away within the confines of his own artistic tradition, but remaining open to innovations from the Continent, as a means of nurturing his own autonomous development.
For Argan, the crisis in contemporary Italian sculpture derived from the fact that instead of remaining open to all the latest innovations, it had fallen back on the traditional elements which had once propelled it to a level of excellence.
To be sure, Marino Marini would have stood out, for his allusive use of his sources, his assimilation of sculptural archetypes and his rigorous approach to combining form, mass, and line. However, all things considered, the Italian sculpture presented in these international exhibitions, which were the most important postwar events of their kind, was shown still to be anchored in a stylistic repertoire and choice of themes, such as nudes, portraits, and mythological subjects that were heavily indebted to the sculpture of the previous decade and had not moved with the times.
Italian sculptors learned two valuable lessons from the works that Moore exhibited in Venice: At the Biennale, Henry Moore also exhibited some abstract sculptures, which recalled his participation in Unit One and his experimentation with combinations of interpenetrating structures and pure volumes and organic forms.
However, the numerical preponderance of works such as the Standing FiguresReclining Figures and Family Groups —especially, those of the previous six years—confirmed the continuing relevance of figurative sculpture at the end of the s. He did not abandon figuration, but he achieved a radical departure from the Italian sculptural tradition.
He grasped the fact that the voids inserted into the interior of the material imparted a greater dynamism to the work and triggered a new relationship to the surrounding space. The space itself, which flowed freely within the work, did not get caught up or absorbed by it, but set the interior and exterior of the sculpture in a relation of continual movement and flux.
At the very least, Cappello learned from Moore the principles of direct carving and truth to materials and began to handle his materials with due respect for their physical properties, such as their elasticity, strength, veining, cracks, and irregularities—at the same time, opting for a broad range of different materials, such as a variety of alabasters, stones, marbles, and woods.
AfterMoore consolidated his reputation as one of the leading figures in the revival of monumental sculpture, both in theory and in practice, and in giving myth a new lease of life via the innumerable articles devoted to him in Italian magazines.
Myth, archaism, and primitivism were endowed with new attributes in s sculpture. The sculptors of the s gave further accretions of meaning to the existing repertoire of myths and archaic and primitive forms, which could serve as metaphors for the condition of mankind, afflicted by the ravages of the Second World War.
This led to the representations of the proud, but lacerated human form, sustained only by an atavistic inner force, protecting its integrity of spirit from the brutal assaults to which its body has been subjected.
Moore played an essential role in defining this myth: These works were at the root of his representation of the human figure, vulnerable but undefeated for all that, and opened up new perspectives for the sculptural treatment of heads and the nude male body. In Warrior with Shieldthe implicit visual allusions to antiquity, from the Belvedere Torso to the linear patterns on the sculpture from the Apollo Sanctuary in Bassai c. The antique fragment was thus used as an allusive device, or a metaphor through which to address, indirectly, the horrors of the Second World War and the tensions generated by the Cold War.
Marcello Mascherini, Guerriero Warrior, bronze, x x cm, Trieste. The theme of the warrior enjoyed particular success with Italian sculptors. Around this time, Mascherini had begun to make sculptures with the aid of plastine moulds taken from the limestone surfaces of rocks in the Karst region of Trieste, which produced the characteristically lacerated, contorted effects of the informel. His Warrior took from Moore, not only the theme of the wounded and suffering male nude, proudly brandishing a huge shield, but his monumentality.
Minguzzi worked pictorial effects into the surfaces of his bronze heads, by drawing attention to all the bumps, perforations, and contrasting volumes, as a way of imbuing elements taken from antiquity with the tortured qualities of the informel.
The year was crucial for Italian sculptors, who were once again confronted with the leading protagonists of the medium in the British Pavilion and at the Venice Biennale, in general.
These young artists changed the subjects and materials of sculpture, as well as of the figure of the sculptor himself, and his way of making sculpture. From that moment untilthe sculptors Lynn Chadwick, Reg Butler, and Kenneth Armitage were closely followed at every stage by their Italian peers, who considered that they held the new keys that would once again enable them to gain access to a climate of modernity.
In the first place, a certain number of Italian sculptors argaan spurred on to try and redefine the human figure, in line with the example set by the British sculptors, by resorting to corroded and distorted representations of the male and female nude. Secondly, the works of the British sculptors acted as a filter for a variety of vaguely expressionist stylistic traits, such as the eroded, pitted, artan textured surfaces that were part of a more generalized sculptural lexicon that had already gained common currency in the rest of Europe, but had been slow to become established in Italy.
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For an Italian sculptor, it would have been risky to become attached to this new vocabulary of forms, because he or she would not have been understood, would not have been able to exhibit, and would have been prevented from entering into the commercial circuit.
For the Italian sculptors, the undeniable international success of the new British avant-garde created an illustrious precedent for them to abandon their outworn linguistic conventions, in favour of a sculptural idiom that was neither traditional nor thought through in terms of volume and mass.
Finally, they found that, by using the techniques of welding and assemblage, they could imbue their surfaces with a tactile quality and arrive at g.c.art new concept of sculpture, as something that was predominantly frontal, linear, and open on all sides.
Reg Butler and Lynn Atgan. For a number of Italian figurative sculptors, the works that Butler exhibited at modern Biennale his reconstruction of the prize-winning model for the Unknown Political Prisoner Competition and Study for Two Watchersofwith their depersonalized, heroic, even hieratic representations noderna the human figure, moedrna a strong appeal.
Butler presented the nude figure as degraded, mutilated, and inert and, like Francis Bacon in his paintings, presented a tormented image of humanity, as being self-obsessed and ridden with Angst. He reduced the dimensions of the head, depriving it of its physiognomic connotations; deformed the massive torso, supported by stick-like legs; and presented a surface appearance that looked thoroughly brutalized and abraded.
This work depicted an adolescent girl, standing up with her hands crossed over her head, one of them covering g.c.rte face, in the act of removing her vest. Luciano Minguzzi, Ombre nel bosco n.
Teoria e Crítica da Arte I
The British sculptor who made the greatest impact on progressive Italian sculptors was Chadwick. At times, his work switched over to an exploration of non-figurative elements via a conjunction of human and vegetal forms and pushed Minguzzi into experimenting with tenuous rhythms, combinations of trapezoid volumes, filigree structures, and compositional extensions into the surrounding space.
Intstitutions that have provided invaluable assistance inlcude: Emanuela Pezzetta PhD is an independent historian and researcher of contemporary art, and a curator of contemporary art exhibitions.
After studying Modern Literature at the University of Udine Italyshe followed a post-degree Diploma in history of art at the same university. Modedna recent publications argzn about the sculptor Alberto Viani and his teaching at the Venice Academia di Belle Arti, Dino Basaldella, Marcello Mascherini and his reliefs, and essays on sculpture of the s and s, art, and philosophy.
Abstract DOI British sculpture gained an international reputation thanks to the exposure it was given at the Venice Biennale from toand proved capable of influencing sculptural developments throughout the s.
Moore and the Validity of Figurative Sculpture DOI Inthe critic Giulio Carlo Argan asserted that Henry Moore was the most important sculptor in Europe, above all for his exquisitely English capacity for not shutting himself away within the confines of his own artistic tradition, but remaining open to innovations from the Continent, as a means of nurturing his own autonomous development.
DOI AfterMoore consolidated his reputation as one of the leading figures in the revival of monumental sculpture, both in theory and in practice, and in giving myth a new lease of life via the innumerable articles devoted to him in Italian magazines. DOI The sculptors of the s gave further accretions of meaning to the existing repertoire of myths and archaic and primitive forms, which could serve as metaphors for the condition of mankind, afflicted by the ravages of the Second World War.
DOI For the Italian sculptors, the undeniable international success of the new British avant-garde g.carte an illustrious precedent for them to abandon their outworn linguistic conventions, in favour of a sculptural idiom that was neither traditional nor thought through in terms of volume and mass.
Translated by Henry Meyric Hughes. Argan, Henry Moore Turin: Francisco De Silva Editore,