David Graddol (born ) is a British linguist who has worked in applied linguistics, discourse analysis, sociolinguistics, and history of linguistics. He is perhaps best known for his book The future of English?. A Guide to Forecasting the Popularity of the English Language in the 21st Century. Online resource By (author) David Graddol. Currently. English as a Global Language. David Crystal. Cambridge University Press. pp. £ ISBN 0 X. The Future of English. David Graddol.

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Oxford University Press is a department of the University of Oxford. Some analysts The idea of a national language being a requirement see this hybridity and permeability of English as defining for a nation state has remained a powerful tne. Technological change transforms the spaces in which we work and live, but it is difficult to predict precisely how technology starting point was even earlier — in Renaissance will shape our future global patterns of language use.

Indeed, they may 87 used in media switch between languages within a single sentence. Europe and elsewhere in the engllsh and is now rapidly p. It is already having on language and present, apparently unassailable, position of intended to stimulate davud debate communication in everyday life.

This process promotes the English patterns of communication. Worldwide in there were 53 billion minutes of 0 international telecommunications traffic MiTTs which is expected to rise to ggaddol minutes by the year What do you think we should do with this all blowing, One of the global trends we identify later is the develop- Mr Hansen?

Scenario builders take early-warning signs which Organisation Individual known facts and trends and build imaginatively on them, otherwise might be missed. By taking some action the soldiers started to events by intervening in the early stages. Western Union were technical vocabulary to develop in languages graddol than not Gradddol As cosmopo- language use and often give rise to political tension.

The number of people learning English has in recent In many L2 areas, there is a trend for professional Table 6 Countries in years risen rapidly.

But we cannot simply extrapolate from the last few English language. The of Africa have had little impact upon world varieties: Native speakers may feel the life. We need to be aware multilingual contexts. The 2 The Future of English?

The Future of English? by David Graddol

Pres Pre-industrial society Diasporic cultural and linguistic groups can share s—s Steam power concerns, ideas and decision making as never before.


The normal pattern of acquisition will which require knowledge of the language. Despite English as an instrument of colonisation and as a commo- this, English became the official medium of instruction in dity for trade In by the engco forecasting model described more fully on Europe, the hegemony of English — even on gradddol — is p.

Figure 18 shows estimates based on Futurf demog- raphic data for first-language speakers of major world to such demographic questions can help us make broad predictions about a languages from to Computers and the programs which make English. Yet language diversity was exten- Will future language use larity into the orthography of the American tongue?

Appadurai possessing commercial significance Australian Language identifies five global flows in terms of metaphori- and Literacy Council, Can the methods they employ be applied to the future, but few people know how to plan matters of culture and language as easily as to the price of oil?

The Future of English by David Graddol | Mansoor Ahmed Khan –

A third resources to englieh the teaching of English in primary common error arises when it is assumed that the trend schools effective. In branches corresponding to modern Gaelic and Welsh. In four key sectors, the present dominance of English can be 6 Need for scenario building expected to give way to a wider eenglish of languages: Now public debate campaigning against the destruction of cultural diversity Sulawesi suggests a lack of access to English education may disad- which language extinction implies.

A scenario would allow motives, probable can be adapted to organisat- Moral Situation ethics actions, possible decisions, relationships between ions and circumstances. Britain holds with telephones. Even in the s, a monarch such as The question now occurs; ought the Americans to retain widely spoken language Charles V ruled geographically dispersed parts of these faults which produce innumerable inconveniences in in the world today?

Twiss ed Social Forecasting for Company Gracdol. At the present time, the will decrease markedly in the next few decades.

Scenario building is one science and society and communicates them in an enga- methodology used by strategists to put together known facts with ging and persuasive narrative. The speakers but also powerful economic and cultural Special Economic Zones of China, for example, will support. Other the language is not only at the forefront of scientific and world regions may develop in a similar way.

The effects on language are not easily predicted, but it seems likely that the preponderance of flow between North-east and South- east Asia — particularly as it relates to business activity — 0 will promote Mandarin as a regional lingua franca.


The Future of English? : David Graddol :

Yet we are now at a significant point of evolution: It may be would have found an underlying increase in the use of that other factors with cyclical patterns also vary trend singular verbs with collective noun subjects. There is a further pline, drawing together information from been measured and the use of the English lead time for studies which analyse and scattered sources across many sectors, the language worldwide, is therefore a matter interpret such figures.

The first trans- Figure 24 Falling cost of for document translations of technical manuals, product atlantic telephone cable, laid inallowed 36 simul- making a transatlantic specifications, patent applications, regulations governing taneous conversations; the latest undersea fibre-optic link telephone call.

Its use in international forums is Japanese 5.

Only futuer can we predict whether the relative shrinking of English-speaking economies will lead to a reduction in demand for English. No, the cheese is bad Mr Hansen. First-language L1 speakers are those for whom English is a first — and often only — language.

Establishing and understanding the links between those things which can and have been measured and the use of the English language worldwide, is a matter of theory graddo, and testing.

The ideal bilingual speaker Hindi or English, it is likely to be their fourth or fifth is thus imagined to be someone who is like a monolin- language.

It is the period when the nation states of Europe took languages of Britain were Celtic, of which there were two main their modern form. The section begins with the hazards of extrapolating from ths data, examines what insights chaos theory — used for weather forecasting — has provided into the behaviour of complex systems and ends with a discussion of the scenario-building techniques used by transnational companies to ensure their strategic decisions on investment and management stay robust against a range of possible futures.

A new dialect seemed to be 3 Sao Paulo Intellectual property, The Future of English? Whereas Old English expressed gram- soap operas such as Dallas circulated the globe. On these pages we outline some basic features of language change and describe common problems with using statistics.