Cataphora and anaphora are the two main types of endophora–that is, reference to an item within the text itself. Anaphora cataphora, endophora. Cohesive ties – typology. Reading: Dušková, L. Studies in the English Language. Part 2. Praha: Karolinum, Chapter Anaphora and Cataphora. LG. Loreto Garrido. Updated 10 November Transcript. This is what Fabian said. That all men were created equally.

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In the following example a, the anaphoric pronoun they refers to the children who are eating the ice-cream. For example, in the sentence Sally arrived, but nobody saw herthe pronoun her is an anaphor, referring back to the antecedent Sally.

Strict within-sentence cataphora is highly restricted catsphora the sorts of structures it can appear within, generally restricted to a preceding subordinate clause.

The task is simply too difficult. So, for example, the pronouns in the following sentences are anaphors:.

A Linguistic Analysis of Hypertexts. The anaphor the right gadget co-refers with a digital camera. The anaphoric referring term is called an anaphor. Anaphora is an important concept for different reasons and on different levels: Volume 20, Issue 1 Pp.

It can build suspense and provide a description.

Anaphora (linguistics)

In its narrower definition, an anaphoric pronoun must refer to some noun phrase that has already been introduced into the discourse. Anaphora and Cataphora wuglife: He ‘s catpahora biggest slob I know.

This page was last edited on 3 Julyat Non-strict cataphora of this sort can occur in many contexts, for example:. Notes aaphora liked this. In some cases, anaphora may refer not to its usual antecedent, but to its complement set. The second thing to notice is that the following two sentences have different coreference properties:. So check this out: There are many theories that attempt to prove how anaphors are related and trace back to their antecedents, with centering theory Grosz, Joshi, and Weinstein being one of them.


In this respect, anaphors reflexive and reciprocal pronouns behave very differently from, for instance, personal pronouns. After squaring both sides, we arrive at the following: In the sentence Before her arrival, nobody saw Sallythe pronoun her refers forward to the postcedent Sallyso her is now a cataphor and an anaphor in the broader, but not the znaphora, sense.

Cataphora – Wikipedia

Strict cross-sentence cataphora where the antecedent is an entire sentence is fairly common cross-linguistically: Cataphora is a type of anaphoraalthough the terms anaphora and anaphor are sometimes used in a stricter sense, denoting only cases where the order of the expressions is the reverse of that found in cataphora.

Exophoric reference occurs when an expression, an exophor, refers to something that is not directly present in the linguistic context, but is rather present in the situational context. Similarly, in discussing ‘The Mayor’ of a citythe Mayor’s identity must be understood broadly through the context which the speech references as general ‘object’ of understanding; is a particular human person meant, a current or future or past office-holder, the office in a strict legal sense, or the office in a general sense which includes activities a mayor might conduct, might even be expected to conduct, while they may not be explicitly defined for this office.

Exophors cannot be anaphors as they do not substantially refer within the dialog or text, though there is a question of what portions of a conversation or document are accessed by a listener or reader with regard to whether all references to which a term points within that language stream are noticed i.

This is what I believe: Here it denotes what would normally be called a reflexive or reciprocal pronoun, such as himself or each other in English, and analogous forms in other languages. The mechanism is called a Binding Condition, Binding Principle, or Binding Constraint, dependent on which side of the bed Chomsky wakes up on. Cataphora of this sort is particularly common in formal contexts, using an anaphoric expression such as this or the following:.


Cataphora across sentences is often used for rhetorical effect. A, B, C, D. If you want somehere’s some parmesan cheese. Cambridge Textbooks in Linguistics. A listener might, for example, realize through listening to other clauses and sentences that she is a Queen because of some of her attributes or actions mentioned.

An example of cataphora in English is the following sentence: Contrastingly, example b has they seeming to refer to the children who are not eating ice-cream:.

Pragmatics Semantics Semiotics Syntactic relationships Tasks of natural language processing. It may help to remember these terms using etymology: By using this site, you agree to the Terms of Use and Privacy Policy.

Usually, an anaphoric expression is a proform or some other kind of deictic contextually-dependent expression. Mental models and the interpretation of anaphora. The use of the term anaphor in this narrow sense is unique to generative grammar, and in particular, to the traditional binding theory. So, for example, the pronouns in the following sentences are anaphors: Deictic proforms are stereotypical exophors, e.

Broadly speaking, cataphpra anaphor is a cataphota that refers back to a previous word. This page was last edited on 3 Julyat Until further revealed by additional cataphroa words, gestures, images or other mediaa listener may not even know what monarchy or historical period is being discussed, and even after hearing her name is Elizabeth does not know, even if an English-UK Queen Elizabeth becomes indicated, if this queen means Queen Elizabeth I or Queen Elizabeth II and must await further clues in additional communications.